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Difference between Contactor and Relay

Contactors probably invented by Tesla to handle higher AC currents?
Relay probably also invented by Tesla to handle lower DC currents when he worked for Edison? ... before Tesla quit Edison to gave all his patents to GE
So the competing AC and DC supporters probably needed different names for the same thing... so each could differentiate 'dangerous, high voltage AC' from 'safe, low voltage DC'
... so a distinction was made between contactor and relay? ... and history purposely muddied the story to help the future forget the past so we can invent new things.... but then somebody begin copywriting old ideas as their own... so today everything belongs to someone else besides you. And the real investors like Tesla get nothing because Edison was unwilling to accept AC?
DC relay
100 amp 48 volt
DC relay
80 amp 12 volt
contator relay
Contactor relay
15 amp 120 volt
3-pole contactor
3-pole / 3-phase / Contactor
coupling relay
3-pole/ 3-phase/ Coupling relay
Packard contactor
Definite purpose contactor
20 amp 120 volt
Packard contactor
Switching relay
20 amp 120 volt

Contactors and relays are similar

Both are used to switch electric circuit ON-OFF
Both are available in variety of Load ratings, variety of coil voltages
Both are available with wide range of AC and DC ratings, for both Load and Coil.
Both have a contact rating or Load rating.
Contact rating specifies type of voltage and maximum amps that can be switched by the contactor or relay. For example 30 amp AC, or 5 amp DC
Both have coil rating.
Coil rating gives the voltage and type of voltage needed to operate the coil that controls the switch. For example 12-24 Volt DC, or 277 VAC.
Both are subject to same laws of physics that governs electricity and mechanics.
If ratings are exceeded, or not met, the contactor or relay can be non-functional or catch fire.
Both are subject to National Electric Code and both must be confined inside closed space with cover, with correct wire size etc.
Both can be used many different ways.
HVAC heating and cooling system, and many other devices, use both relays and contactors.
Relays can be used to switch contactors ON-OFF, contactor can be used to switch relay ON-OFF

Contactors and relays are different

General rule, any application that exceeds 40 amps AC will use contactor instead of relay? Over 100 amp DC is generally contactor?
General rule: relays are commonly available with Normally Open and Normally Closed contacts
Contactors can have NO and NC terminals, but typical HVAC contactor does not.
When contactor has NO NC terminals, it usually has regular contact terminals also, and the NO NC terminals are additional terminals.
Contactors are available 1-pole, 2-pole, 3-pole, and 4-pole, with auxiliary block that can add more poles. Each pole can switch a wire on-off.
Generally, relays have 1 or 2 pole with NO NC contacts
Contactor can switch single-phase and 3-phase. Contactors can switch 3-wire or 4-wire 3-phase depending on specific model.
Relays can switch single-phase, but usually not 3-phase. But relays can switch contactor, and contactor can switch 3-phase
Repair parts might be available for 3-pole contactors, but generally not for relays or 2-pole contactors
Small contactor might be 1.5" x 2" x 3". Generally, many relays are smaller, but can be larger.
On-delay and Off-delay and repeat-cycle relays are available for small loads.
More delay and repeat cycle options are available with relays.
Load rating for delay relay might be 1 amp, and so the relay is used to switch higher-amp contactor, and contactor switches motor on-off.
On-delay and Off-delay 'blocks' can be added to some contactors, but only specific models.
Auxiliary contact 'blocks' can be added to some contactors, but not all models of contactors support auxiliary contacts


Relays can cost $4 for general purpose, up to hundreds for timing relays
Switching relays for power plant and electric grid applications can cost thousands
Contactors cost $12 for low-amp 2-pole definite purpose, up to thousands for high-amp commercial contactors

Why use contactors and relays?

Contactors and relays are electric switches.
Household light switch does same job as relay or contactor, except you manually move light switch on-off.
For example, you don't want to stand in front of refrigerator and switch on the compressor each time the temperature rises inside refrigerator rises.
Same with water well pump, HVAC heat, air conditioning and dehumidifier. Many electrical devices are automated.
Automated controls include thermostats, pressure sensors, light sensors, time sensors, etc
To automate a refrigerator, a thermostat is used.
Refrigerator thermostats switch on-off when temperature drops or rises. 
To preserve thermostat, and reduce manufacture and replacement cost, the thermostat does not handle heavy switching.
Instead the thermostat switches small voltage, and sends electric signal to contactor coil or relay coil.
The contactor or relay handles the heavy switching load whenever it receives electric signal from thermostat.
Electric systems are divided into specialized parts so automated controls and switches last longer and are cheaper to make
Most heavy-amp loads are switched using combination of contactors and relays.
There are exceptions where heavy load is manually switched.
For example table saw: 1-2 Hp motor is activated using heavy-duty switch.

How to contactors and relays work?

Example from typical home:
Automated sensor such as refrigerator thermostat switches small voltage when temperature rises inside refrigerator.
Wires run between thermostat and electro-magnetic coil on contactor or relay
When temperature inside refrigerator rises, the thermostat closes circuit, causing small voltage to activate coil on contactor or relay
Electrified coil on contactor or relay creates electromagnet. Electromagnet pulls together or pushes apart contacts or points.
When contacts are pulled together, this switches refrigerator compressor ON.
Compressor runs. Refrigerator gets cold. Thermostat switches off small voltage. Coil on contactor or relay is de-energized. Compressor turns Off.
There are exceptions:
Solid state relays operate differently, relays on circuit board can operate differently, commercial digital contactors can operate differently

Load rating

Load is the electrical demand consumed by light bulb, motor, or appliance.
Each electric device has rating printed on a label. Water heater has label, dishwasher has label, pool pump has label.
Light bulb can be 100 watt @ 120 Volt, water heater 4500 watts @ 240 Volt, Double oven 7500 watt @ 240 volt
Bathroom fan motor 1/6 Hp @ 120 volt, water well pump 1 Hp @ 240 Volt
Refrigerator, washing machine, each have rating labels that show amount of Load they draw from electric system.

Generally: a contactor is used to control high rated load, while relay is used to control lower rated load.
For example 1 Hp water well pump controlled by pressure switch contactor.
While 1/4 Hp bath fan can be controlled by off-delay relay.
There are exceptions.
For example: timers with relays that rated for 40 amp 2 Hp motor or pump.

Electrical rating of contactor and relay must match Load rating

Each Contactor and Relay has electrical rating.
Electrical rating must match Load rating
For example: If relay is rated 10 amps @ 120 volt AC and used to switch motor rated for 1 Hp @ 240 volt, then relay and load are not matched.
Relay will overheat and burn out quickly.
There is no difference between Contactor and Relay... both have electric rating that shows maximum load that the contactor or relay can switch.
Packard contactor

siemens contactor

Typical 2-pole contactor found in HVAC applications

Must specify coil voltage... this is voltage that will switch the contactor on-off
Must specify amp rating... this is the amount of Load the contactor can switch

If you have 30 amp HVAC blower, you can choose 30 amp contactor... or 40 amp contactor... or 60 amp
Larger amp is ok... but smaller amp is not ok
For example, using 20 amp contactor on 30 amp load will cause contactor to burn out, or cause other problems
Packard C240B contactor
2-Pole 40A resistive

120Volt AC coil / 40 amp contactor At Amazon
240Volt AC coil / 40 amp contactor At Amazon

Mars 2-pole and 3-pole contactors at Amazon
Noark contactors at Amazon
Amico contactors at Amazon

Contactor spec sheet:
single-pole contactor
Larger image of single-pole contactor

1-pole contactor

Only leg is turned on-off, while other leg is continuously connected

Single pole contactors at Amazon
3-pole contactor
Heavy amp loads: 20-90 amps
L terminals for Line wires from breaker
T terminals for load wires

3-pole contactor
3-pole definite purpose Contactor sizes approximately:
20-40 amp 3" tall x 2.4" wide
50-60 amp 3.75" tall x 2.7 wide
75-90 amp 4.5' tall x 3.5 wide
3-pole contactor
Light amp loads: 8-12 amps/ contact block connection
A1 A2 coil voltage
L terminals for Line wires from breaker
T terminals for load wires
Terminals 13-14 NO / terminals 21-22 NC
Other terminals apply to auxiliary blocks
How to wire motor control contactor
Difference between contactor and relay
How to wire 3-phase
DC relays for solar power

Buy 3-pole contactors/ AC ratings

By manufacturer:
3-pole contactors at Amazon

Packard 3-pole contactor
Fasco 3-pole contactor
Mars 2-pole and 3-pole contactors at Amazon
Brah contactors
Market Forge contactor
Schneider contactor at Amazon
Kripal 3-pole contactor/ they email asking which coil voltage
Furnas contactor at Amazon
Siemens 3-pole contactor
Siemens 3RT motor contactor
Eaton 3 pole contactor with contact block connection
Allen-Bradley 3 pole contactor
Migro contactor

By coil voltage and amp rating

3 pole 24Volt coil
40 amp 3-pole 24V coil Packard
50 amp 3-pole 24V coil Mars
60 amp 3-pole 24V coil Packard
75 amp 3-pole 24V coil Mars
75 amp 3-pole 24V coil Norak

90 amp 3-pole 24Volt lug connection Norak

3--pole 24 Volt DC coil
Siemens 3RT10 up to 460 volt 5 Hp with auxiliary contacts

3-pole 120Volt coil
25 amp 3-pole 120V coil Brah
30 amp 120 volt coil Packard
30 amp 3-pole 120V coil Brah
30 amp 120 volt Mars
30 amp 120 coil Eaton
40 amp 120V coil at Amazon / Packard
40 amp 120V coil Furnas
50 amp 120V coil Norak
50 amp 120v coil Mars
60 amp / 3 pole 120 volt coil Furnas
60 amp 3-pole 120Volt coil Packard
60 amp 3-pole 120V coil Mars
75 amp 3-pole 120V coil Norak
75 amp 3-pole 120V coil Mars
75 amp 3-pole Migro
90 amp 3-pole 120 volt coil Square D
90 amp 3-pole 120 volt coil Mars
100 amp 3-pole Migro

3 pole 208-240Volt coil
30 amp 3-pole 240V coil
30 amp 208-240 coil Mars

40 amp 208-240 volt Eaton
40 amp 208-240 Mars

50 amp 208-240 V Mars
75 amp 3-pole 240V coil Norak
70 amp 3-pole 240V coil Mars
90 amp 3-pole 240Volt coil Norak
90 amp 3-pole 208-240Volt coil Mars

100 amp 3-pole Migro
100 amp 3-pole Kripal

3 pole 277volt coil
20 amp 3-pole 277V coil Norak
30 amp 277V coil 3-pole Norak
30 amp 277V coil Mars
40 amp 3-pole 277V coil Norak
40 amp 277V coil Mars
50 amp 3-pole 277V coil Norak
50 amp 3-pole 277V coil Mars
60 amp 3-pole 277v coil Norak
60 amp 277V coil Mars
75 amp 277V coil 3-pole Norak
75 amp 277V coil Mars
90 amp 277V coil 3-pole lug terminals Norak
90 amp 277 V coil Mars

3-pole 380 volt coil
40 amp/ 3 pole + 1 NO 1NC

3 pole 480Volt coil
30 amp 480V coil Mars

40 amp 480V coil at Amazon/ Brah
40 amp 480V coil Noark
40 amp 480V coil Mars
50 amp 480V coil Noark
50 amp 480V coil Mars
60 amp 480V coil Noark
60 amp 480V coil Mars
75 amp 480V coil Noark at Amazon
75 amp 480V coil Mars
90 amp 480V coil Noark at Amazon
90 amp 480V coil Mars
100 amp 480V coil Kripal/ Yagi
      contact block

Contact blocks/ pneumatic timer attachments.

Activated by mechanical action of contactor, instead of electric current.
On delay timers delay start time./
Once the timer block activates, the countdown begins.
When countdown ends, the timer's internal relay activates.
Adding timer block, allows the contactor to control additional circuit with time delay.

Buy Contact blocks at Amazon
Delay contact block at Amazon
Unicell contact block
Dayton contact block

Replacement coil for contactor

Example; Replacement coil for 3-pole contactors

Snap out bottom of contactor
Replace coil
Snap bottom back in place
auxiliary Contact 3-pole contactor
Auxiliary Contact can be added to some contactors, changing them from 3-pole to 4-pole.
This allows additional switch control

Siemens side mount contact
Schneider auxiliary contact
Square d auxiliary contact
3-pole contactor

3-pole contactor/ 20 amp/ with NO NC terminals

3 pole + With NO NC terminals
Low cost, low amp contactors

20 amp/ 120 volt coil/ 3-pole contactor + 2-NO 2-NC terminals with auxiliary connection
20 amp/ 240 volt coil/ 3P 600 V 5500 watt + 1-NO 1-NC terminals
Amico contactors at Amazon

Commercial contactors can take many forms

Nema contactors

These contactors can control two 3-phase loads
Additionally, each contactor has connection located on top for auxiliary contact block or delay timer block with NO NC terminals (shown below)

Buy: $2700-3800 + shipping
Nema 90 amp contactor at Amazon
Nema 90 amp 3-pole at Amazon

Block attaches to contactor with mechanical latch
When contactor turns ON, the mechanical movement of the coil turns on the auxiliary device
Off delay timer, or on-delay timer, or contact block connects to contactor
These auxiliary devices can be used to control contactor activation, or be used to control separate operation
When contactor turns ON, the contact block is activated mechanically
6EAU0 delay timer    
Delay contact block at Amazon
Unicell contact block
Dayton contact block
Commercial contactors can take many forms

This contactor is activated by applying voltage to terminals A1 A2
3 Hot wires from 3 phase power connect to L line terminals 1 3 5
3 Wires going to Load connect to T terminals 2 4 6

There are additional terminals 13 14 21 22
Terminals 13 and 14 are NO and terminals 21 22 are NC

So this contactor can control 3-phase operation, but also control additional loads using the additional terminals

Schneider 3-phase contactor at Amazon

How to wire motor control contactor
Power contactor

Power contactor for cranes, mills, quarries

59,000 watts- 425,000 watts

Reversing hoist contactor

Intermatic CA3750
Larger image

Control water heater or pool pump with telephone or computer

Z-wave contactor

Intermatic CA3750 contactor module

Intermatic CA3750 at Amazon
Vera3 at Amazon
Contactor controlled by remote Z wave
5-year warranty/ 30 amp

How to wire and set up CA3750

z-wave relay

Z-wave relay

Control 120 volt loads with remote z-wave switch
Requires neutral wire and hot wire to operate switch
Z-wave micro-switch

Relay: Load Contacts: 28 volt DC 30 amp DC

9A series
W9AS1D52-110/ 30 amp @ 28 volt DC
W9AS5D52-110/ 30 amp @ 28 volt DC
Magnecraft power relays
Schneider power relays

Zettler miniature relay

Buy:miniature relay
120Volt SPST miniature relay at Amazon
240 Volt at Amazon
Zettler relays at Amazon
12 Volt DC relay 

Open frame: 30-40 amp AC power relay


30 Amp DPDT relay at Amazon
40 Amp DPDT relay at Amazon
Magnecraft 50-1289-1 relay box and cover
Magnecraft relay at Amazon
12 Volt DC relay

Open frame: 12 VDC 40-50 amp DC power relay

W199AX-3 relay
W199PX-13/ 50 amp at 26 VDC = 1400 watt
X199 Magnecraft relay
Magnecraft W199 DC relay

Magnecraft relay / pdf

Solid state DC relay/ Input 3-28 Volt DC

Contacts: 120 Volt AC / 26 amps

3-32 volt DC input/ control 120 Volt 25 amp AC
Opto relays at Amazon

Solid state relay data sheet
Solid state relay DC relay data sheet
Switching function solid state relay/ pdf

Solid state relay/ SPST

Check input-output rating: AC-AC/ or AC-DC / or DC-DC

DC input to AC output is most common
AC to AC input 80-280V AC input 24-380V AC
AC to AC output 24V to 480V input  80 to 250V
Solid state with heat sink
Solid State relays at Amazon
Solid state relay at Amazon
100-240Volt AC input / 20 amp/ at Amazon
80-250Volt AC input/ AC output/ 40 amp/ at Amazon

Electromechanical relay vrs solid state relay/ pdf

DC to DC solid state relays

Buy from my associate links
100 volt 25 amp DC Relay
200 volt 25 amp DC relay at Amazon
Relay safety cover
Heat sink

Convert water heater from AC to DC
Electromechanical relay vrs solid state relay/ pdf
Switching function solid state relay/ pdf

DC200P 5-200 VDC solid state relay

Contacts: 24 VDC 1 amp DC

DC200P 200 volt DC at Amazon
Opto relays at Amazon

Solid state relay data sheet
Solid state relay DC relay data sheet

DC60MP 5-60 VDC solid state relay

Contacts: 24 VDC 3 amp DC

DC60MP 60 volt DC at Amazon
Opto relays at Amazon

Solid state relay data sheet
Solid state relay DC relay data sheet
Intermatic relays Relays that fit inside Intermatic freeze controls
1435T136 relay with 120 Volt AC coil at Amazon
143T135 relay with 240 Volt AC coil at Amazon
Buy equal Substitute
Omron 120 volt coil at Amazon/ contacts rated 25 amp @ 220 volt load
Omron 240 volt coil at Amazon/ with test button/ contacts rated 25 amp @ 220 volt load
Omron relays at Amazon
Intermatic freeze controls

General purpose relay
Omron LY2 at Amazon 
30 Amp DPDT relay at Amazon

Omron relay/Page 450 / pdf
Delay relay
12V-240V applications
1 amp to 15 amp load
Various coil ratings
Model 6a859     15 seconds to 300 seconds
Model 6a858     3 seconds to 60 seconds    
Dayton off delay timers at Amazon

How to wire delay timer
How to wire AH3 delay timer
ICM relay used in HVAC and other applications... usually 24 volt application
Prevent motor from immediate restart after power is cut
Keep blower going a few seconds longer after heat strips turns off

Buy: 120-240 Volt delay ON:
ICM 102 / 18-240VAC 1.5 amp load Amazon
Packard 102 at Amazon

Buy: contactors:
Packard contactor with 24Volt coil
120Volt coil At Amazon
240Volt coil At Amazon

ICM 102 delay ON timer manual .pdf
More contactors

Delay timer for pump or motor
Din rail delay and repeat-cycle relay
Multip purpose timer

How to wire din rail timers
How to wire delay relay
Timer relay 40 amp

Found on GM40 series etc
Found on digital defrost timers
Computer controlled relay
Relays that are controlled by desktop computer

Delay timer
Relay board
Relay module with 4 relays
20 amp each
Modular board expands capability of some Intermatic timer

Intermatic ET series
DC to DC relay   DC power relay
250VDC    25 amp                        400VDC  200 amp

DC power relays

Full on-off contacts/ 12 or 24 volt DC coil
250 volt / 25 amp DC load
250V x 25 amp = 6250 watt
Connect 12 or 24 volt DC to terminals 3-4;
Connect load to terminals 1-2

Electromechanical DC-DC G9EB-1 relay
24 VDC coil and 400 VDC/ 200 amp contacts
Omron relay at online

DC relays for solar power
Omron DC-DC pdf
DC power relay spec sheet
enclosed relay

Enclosed relays/ Functional devices

Enclosed relays at Amazon
3PST AC-DC at Amazon
Functional relays at Amazon
Aprilaire relay

Aprilaire amp relay

When amp exceeds set point, the relay activates 120 volt circuit.
Use relay to control contactor when load exceeds 50 watts
Use to activate duct booster fan
Take off bracket and install bracket around a control wire that carries amperage
When amperage flows across line, the Aprilaire relay activates... and closes circuit going to 120 Volt load... such as indicator light... or another relay etc... the indicator light turns ON.

Aprilaire relay at Amazon
Current sensing relays

Aprilaire manual .pdf
aprilaire relay
What is Voltage monitoring relay
What is Phase monitoring relay
What is Phase failure relay.
What is a measurement and control relay?
These relays are available in wide variety of different forms, but each does approximately same thing.... monitor the electricity flowing into a factory or into a machine. And when the electricity does not meet the parameter that is being measured, it will open or close a relay that will shut down power or perform other task such as issue warning light etc.

Different phase monitoring or phase failure relays are available to perform specific measurement or functions
The phase monitoring or phase failure relay will measure the parameter, and if electricity falls outside acceptable range, then the relay opens or closes contacts that can disconnect power to the equipment, or perform any other needed function.

Depending on the version, the relays monitor phase sequence, line and voltage faults, phase failure with and without N conductor monitoring, phase unbalance, undervoltage or overvoltage.... and response is initiated before more significant damage can occur.
For example if you have 3-phase machine. Note: Three phase is commercial electric wiring and requires 3 wires to complete circuit.
If one or more of the wires is out of phase, or is disrupted by interference, or falls in voltage, or spikes in voltage, these electrical disturbances can damage expensive machinery. The monitoring relays prevent damage.
Voltage monitoring relay


Test for breaks in wire/ Test for voltage
Most appliance require 80% rated voltage to function correctly
Multimeters at Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon 
How to test and replace element
How to test thermocouple
Element tests for 120 volts
How to test wire
Safety when testing wires:
Never touch wet or previously flooded appliance.
Never stand on wet surface when working on electric.
Never stand on bare soil, put down dry boards.
Tape tester leads to wood sticks to keep hands away from power.
Use non-contact voltage tester before touching wires.
Never touch or lean into any made of metal.
Remove metal objects from pockets.
Do not use oxygen or fuel accelerants in same room as electrical repairs

Basic house wiring

Non-contact voltage tester

Test for power without touching connectors
NEVER assume power is OFF

Non-contact voltage tester Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon
How to test electric power is off
wire connector assortment

Twist-on wire connector assortments

Do not reuse old connectors 

Connector assortment at Amazon
Connector assortment at Amazon

How to select and install twist-on wire connectors
Weatherproof wire connector

Weatherproof wire connector

Connector cavity is full of silicone
Built-in cover keeps silicone in place
Protect from water, dust etc
Buy from my affiliate links
Weatherproof size 14 to 6 Amazon
Weatherproof size 22 to 8 Amazon

How to select and install twist-on wire connectors
Wire connector wrench

Wrench to apply wire connectors

Tighten connector 

Wire connector blaster
Twist connector wrenches at Amazon

How to twist wire
How to select and install twist-on wire connectors

How to install terminals


Terminal kit
Blue for 16-14 wire
Yellow for 12-10 wire
Read about terminals
Push on wire connectors

Push-on wire connectors in place of twist-on connectors

Push on wire connectors Amazon
Red 3P connector for 10-14 gauge wire
Lever connectors for stranded wire at Amazon

linesman pliers
Buy tools:
Wire strippers at Amazon
Linesman pliers
Utility knife at Amazon
End cutting nippers at Amazon

Use solid copper wire
Fire inside timer caused by stranded wire
Keep enclosure door closed at all times
soldering guns

Timer caught fire

Orange/ #10 gauge for for 30 amp circuits including water heater
with ground
10-2 gauge/ 30 amp
10-3/ 30 amp

NMB is house wiring
UF is underground

Yellow 12 gauge 20 amp

Yellow/ #12 gauge wire for 20 amp
with ground
12-2 gauge/ 20 amp
12-3/ 20 amp

Roll stranded wire

NMB is house wiring
UF is underground
White 14 gauge 15 amp

White/ #14 gauge wire for 15 amp
with ground
14-2 gauge/ 15 amp
14-3/ 15 amp

NMB is house wiring
UF is underground

Copper ground wire
Use same size as other wire in circuit

Spools of ground wire
Ground rods at Amazon

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