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How to wire 3-phase
power generationBuy Related Books:
3-phase power generation book at Amazon
3-phase wiring books at Amazon

Resource:
What is 3-phase/ from power plant to end user/ with illustrations
Electricians forum
Electricity from power plant to distribution substation
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3-phase is 3 Hot wires from power plant: 
Power plant produces 3-phase that is transmitted on 3 wires.
Transmission lines bring 500,000-69,000 volts to substation.
High voltages means lower amps, which mean less heat loss and more transmission distance.
Substation transformers lower voltage and increase amperage for subtransmission to local substations or distribution to each building and home.
Distribution lines carry 3-wire 4,400 to 7,200 volt to end user location.
Transformers at each business or home lower voltage and raise amperage to provide usable electric power.

Resources:
Electric power distribution system operation 1990/ pdf
Electricity from power plant to end user
Identify transformer wiring
What is electricity
Name part on electric poles
Pulling overhead power wire
3-phase timer
High voltage is needed for transmission and low voltage for end user.
High voltage switchgear is heavy, expensive and dangerous, making high-voltage switches, breakers and appliances impractical.
Therefore lower voltages are needed for end user such as 208-240 volt.
3-phase power
Larger image        Original image
Voltage is determined by transformer bank installed by utility: 

3-transformer 3-phase
3 Hot 6900 volt distribution or primary wires arrive at power pole
Drop lines from each hot wire enter 3 separate transformers.

Transformers can be different at each location
Different transformers and wiring configurations produce different voltages
Transformers are wired together to product Delta configuration, or Wye configuration
3-wire Primary Wye to 4-wire secondary Wye
3-wire primary Delta to 3-wire secondary Delta
4-wire primary Wye to 3-wire secondary Delta
3-wire primary Delta to 4-wire secondary Wye
Resources:
Identify transformer wiring
See illustrations/ pdf
Generally, 3 secondary Hot wires and a neutral wire drop down to building.
Having Neutral wire gives more voltage options for electrician.
Combination of Hots and neutral give wide variety of voltages in US and across world
240-120V, 208-120V, 230-133V, 400-230v, 415-230v, 480-277V, 600-347V

Resources:
See chart of 3-phase worldwide
Basic-3-phase-transformer-training.pdf
3-phase circuits with basic math/ pdf
Distribution transformers with illustrations/ pdf
Distribution transformers 2 / pdf
Distribution transformers 3/ pdf
Common wiring configurations/ pdf
3-phase open wye and open delta
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2 transformer 3-phase for smaller loads
Three phase can be achieved using 2 transformers instead of 3 transformers.
Used for smaller installations. A third transformer can be added when load exceeds capacity of two transformers.
2 transformer 3-phase
Illustration matches photo above showing 3 phase from 2 transformers
Two-transformers create open Delta or open Wye depending on how the transformers are wired.
Different wiring configurations and transformers can create wide variety of electrical configurations to meet needs of location.

Resource:
Transformer wiring illustrations
Difference between Delta and Wye
Delta transformer coils are wired in parallel.
WYE transformer coils are wired in series.
Delta has lower amps/ meaning less heat.
For example many transformer banks are wired Delta on the Power company or Primary coils, and Wye on the customer or secondary coils. The reason for this: the primary side voltage can be 4400-7900 volts, and using delta configuration means lower amps which means the manufacturer can use smaller wires on the primary side coils located inside the transformer and save money.
Materials used for the power grid are a balance of cost, safety, and function.
Star-Delta (WYE-delta) is a configuration used for motor starter timers, such as a star-delta timer. Motors consume high amperage during the start. Amps means heat and heat loss. To resolve issue of high-amp high-heat, the motor is started with the star or wye configuration, and after the motor gets going, the circuit is switched to delta for higher efficiency.
How to calculate the voltage for WYE
Test Hot to ground = voltage
Test Hot to Neutral voltage ... the result multiplied by √3 (1.7333) = Hot to Hot voltage
Test Hot to Hot voltage ... the result divided by √3 = Hot to Neutral voltage
Calculations assume balanced voltage across all three lines
3 phase service
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Different image
3 phase weatherhead, meter and breaker panel
3 Hot wires and 1 Neutral wire arrive at service

Bare aluminum primary hot wires from the power company supply the transformers with high volt low amp electricity.
Transformers convert high voltage to lower volt higher amp electricity.
Insulated secondary wires drop down from the transformers and connect to service rack before being looped into the service cap and down the mast into the meter socket, and then down into the main breaker box, or into a cut-off box and then over to the main breaker box located farther away.

Buy
3-phase service panel
Service cap and mast clamps
7-jaw Meter socket
Cable grip
3-pole breaker

Resources:
Electric service installation/ pdf
3-phase wiring specs/ pdf
3-phase meter 3 phase meter has 7 prongs
1 prong for Neutral
3 prongs for incoming Hot wires
3 prongs for Hot wires going to breaker panel
High leg delta: High leg connects to prongs on right of neutral prong
Resource:
Buy 3-phase electric meter
3-phase meter                  3-phase meter without neutral         
With neutral                                                   Without neutral
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Example 3 phase meter box illustration/ 
With and w/out neutral
If service does not have neutral wire, then ground wire still connects as shown.
Meter stabs into meter box.
Always turn off all breakers and electric usage when removing and installing meter to avoid arc and surge
Wires leave meter box and enter the breaker panel

High leg delta: High leg connects to terminals on right of neutral prong, or Line 3.
High leg wiring will have neutral wire

Buy
3-phase service panel
Service cap and mast clamps
7-jaw Meter socket
Cable grip
3-pole breaker

Resources:
3-phase meter box wiring/ pdf
Single-phase meter wiring/ pdf
3-phase meters Meter box illustration: 4-wire Wye and Delta
Illustration on right shows location of High Leg
Both illustrations are identical for Wye and Delta

Resource:
Example service installation manual
            3-phase wye
More voltages are available when panel has Neutral
Look at caption below each illustration on left
Without Neutral, then panel has 208Volt
With Neutral, then panel has both 208V and 120V

Test across any two Hot wires shows 208V, while testing Hot to Neutral shows 120V
       Line-to-line voltage = line to neutral x √3
       √3 = 1.732
       120V x 1.732 = 208V
Same with 480V-277V: Test across any two hot wires shows 480V, while testing Hot to neutral shows 277V
Exception is High leg delta, where testing across any two Hot wires shows 240Volts, but testing Hot to Neutral shows 120V or 208V

Resources:
See more wiring diagrams/ scroll down page
See wiring diagram for High leg delta/ scroll down page
Formulas for 3-phase
Estimate line-to-line voltages
3-phase service panel
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Example 3 phase breaker panel
Generally 3 hot wires from meter attach to 3-pole main breaker
Neutral connects to Neutral busbar
Ground wire (not shown) connects to ground busbar.
Some services do not have Neutral wire, and neutral busbar might be used for grounding.

If both busbars on either side of hot busbars are used for Neutrals, Then separate ground busbar is added inside panel.

3-pole breakers fit over each 3 Hot busbars
There are 3 hot busbars in 3-phase panel.
Each hot wire supplies power to separate busbar
Illustration shows where 3-pole breaker snaps into place

Buy
3-phase service panel
Service cap and mast clamps
7-jaw Meter socket
Cable grip
3-pole breaker
Main lug subpanel

3-pole breakersBuy:
3-pole breaker
3-phase panel, subpanel, and breakers
High voltage tools
High voltage toolsHigh voltage tools

Buy:
High voltage tools
3-phase distribution panel
Larger image
3-phase distribution panel/ Example 120-208 Volt
4-wire
3 Hot and 1 Neutral enter meter box
3 Hot and 1 Neutral enter distribution panel

3-pole breakers snap onto busbars
3-pole breaker supplies power to 3-phase circuit with 3 Hot wires, with Neutral wire and ground wire

1 Hot is drawn from a 3-pole breaker
1 Hot and Neutral supply power to 120 Volt outlets
3 phase busbar Each hot busbar looks different for ez identification
3-phase breaker snaps over 3 hot busbars
Example 3-pole or 3-phase breaker would snap over 3 hot busbars, and then blue, red and black wires connected to breaker.

3-phase high leg delta Wire colors vary
For example high-leg Delta the high leg is orange colored wire
High leg is orange wire and is always 3rd wire down
Other countries have different wire colors

High leg wire color is orange. High leg delta wire color
3-phase 240Volt
High leg to other legs 240Volt
High leg to Neutral 208Volt
Other legs to neutral 120Volt
Other legs to each other 240Volt
Resource:
Wire color codes at Wikipedia

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Example single-pole breaker in 3-phase panel
Color added for illustration
3-phase motor wiring
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Example 3 phase circuit
Wire colors vary
3-phase breaker located in panel
3-phase 3-wire goes to contactor (or motor starter) and then to motor.
Grounding indicated, but ground wire not shown
No neutral wire shown, and not needed for example motor circuit
2 Hot wires pulled from 3-phase go to double-pole switch or timer.
Switch or timer activates motor starter or contactor, which starts motor.

Fused disconnected added between breaker and starter and motor, and is located at motor.
Required by code to protect anyone servicing motor and to protect wires and motor from overheat..
Fused disconnect added between 3-phase and double-pole switch or timer.
Required by code to protect anyone working on circuit, and to protect wires, switch and contactor
Resources:
How to wire 3-phase timer
3-phase motor starter wiring/ pdf
Buy:
3-pole contactors at Amazon
3-pole disconnect at Amazon
Leviton MS302-DS 600Volt 30 amp double-pole motor switch at Amazon
MS303-DS 30 amp 3-phase motor starter
3-phase motor starter 3-phase motor starter
T side is for motor
L side is Line from breaker
Wire colors can connect to any of the 3 terminals
Wire colors must be opposite each other on T and L sides
Buy:

3-pole contactors at Amazon
3-pole disconnect at Amazon
Leviton MS302-DS 600Volt 30 amp double-pole motor switch at Amazon
MS303-DS 30 amp 3-phase motor starter
3 phase circuit
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Schematic showing same circuit above
Wiring from breaker panel to motor

Resources:
How to wire 3-phase timer
3-phase 2-speed eclectic motor
Cooper phase wiring diagrams
3-phase motor wiring diagrams
Formulas for 3-phase
3-pole contactor
Heavy amp loads: 20-90 amps
L terminals for Line wires from breaker
T terminals for load wires

3-pole contactor
3-pole definite purpose Contactor sizes approximately:
20-40 amp 3" tall x 2.4" wide
50-60 amp 3.75" tall x 2.7 wide
75-90 amp 4.5' tall x 3.5 wide
3-pole contactor
Light amp loads: 8-12 amps/ connection for contact block
A1 A2 coil voltage
L terminals for Line wires from breaker
T terminals for load wires
Terminals 13-14 NO / terminals 21-22 NC
Other terminals apply to auxiliary blocks

Resources:
How to wire motor control contactor
Difference between contactor and relay
How to wire 3-phase
DC relays for solar power
Buy 3-pole contactors/ AC ratings
3-pole contactors at Amazon
Noark 3 pole contactor
Packard 3-pole contactor
Mars 2-pole and 3-pole contactors at Amazon
Schneider contactor at Amazon
Kripal 3-pole contactor
Furnas contactor at Amazon
Siemens 3-pole contactor
Eaton 3 pole contactors with contact block connection
Allen-Bradley 3 pole contactor

3-pole 120Volt coil

25 amp 3-pole 120V coil
30 amp 120 volt coil
30 amp 3-pole 120V coil
40 amp 120V coil at Amazon
40 amp 120V coil
40 amp /120V coil at Amazon
50 amp 120V coil
60 amp / 3 pole 120 volt coil
60 amp 3-pole 120Volt coil
75 amp 3-pole 120V coil
90 amp 3-pole 120 volt coil

3--pole 24 Volt DC coil
Siemens 3RT10 up to 460 volt 5 Hp with auxiliary contacts

3 pole 24Volt coil

90 amp 3-pole 24Volt lug connection
75 amp 3-pole 24V coil
75 amp 3-pole 24V coil
60 amp 3-pole 24V coil
50 amp 3-pole 24V coil
40 amp 3-pole 24V coil

3 pole 240Volt coil
90 amp 3-pole 240Volt coil Amazon
90 amp 3-pole 208-240Volt coil
75 amp 3-pole 240V coil
70 amp 3-pole 240V coil
50 amp 240V coil
30 amp 3-pole 240V coil

3 pole 277volt coil
90 amp 277V coil 3-pole lug terminals
75 amp 277V coil 3-pole lug terminals
60 amp 3-pole 277v coil
50 amp 3-pole 277V coil
40 amp 3-pole 277V coil
30 amp 277V coil 3-pole
20 amp 3-pole 277V coil

3-pole 380 volt coil
40 amp

3 pole 480Volt coil
40 amp 480V coil at Amazon
40 amp 480V coil at Amazon
50 amp 480V coil
60 amp 480V coil at Amazon
75 amp 480V coil at Amazon
75-90 amp 480V coil at Amazon
90 amp 3-pole 480V coil
100 amp 480V coil at Amazon
      contact block Contactor blocks/ pneumatic timer attachments.
Activated by mechanical action of contactor, instead of electric current.
On delay timers delay start time./
Once the timer block activates, the countdown begins.
When countdown ends, the timer's internal relay activates.
Adding timer block, allows the contactor to control additional circuit with time delay.

Buy Contactor blocks at Amazon
Delay contact block at Amazon
Resources:
How to wire delay contact block

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Square D transformer
Larger image
Type 3R outdoor enclosure
Buck-boost transformer/ buck down-boost up
Buck voltage down
Or boost voltage up.

This single-phase transformer bucks down voltage. 
Convert 240Volt to 120Volt without neutral wire from breaker box.
Convert 2-wire 480Volt to 240Volt or 120Volt
Buy:
Square D transformers at Amazon
Allow 12" clearance top and sides
Buck boost transformer wiring
Larger image
Example: Buck-boost transformer wiring
Primary wiring input:
480Volt primary input connects to H1 H4, and then H2 and H3 are connected together
OR
240Volt primary input connects to H1 H4, and then H3 connects to H1, and H2 connects to H4
Secondary wiring output
240Volt secondary output connects to X1 X4, and then X2 and X3 are connected together
OR
120Volt secondary output connects to X1 X4, and then X3 connects to X1, and X2 connects to X4
Buy:
Square D transformers at Amazon
Transformer configurations
Example 3-phase Transformer configurations
Inside each transformer are 2 coils of wire. The primary coil and secondary coil.
The primary coil connects to high voltage from utility, and not shown in these illustrations.
The secondary coil connects to customer service.
The secondary coil is shown in each illustrations, but not the primary coil.
Generally, there are three transformers at each 3-phase service.
Each squiggly line in illustration represents secondary coil inside each of the 3 transformers.
Some transformers have more than 1 primary and 1 secondary coil
Resource:
How to identify transformer wiring
Transformer basics
3-phase wye with neutral
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Wye with Neutral and Ground
Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
3-phase wye with ground
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Wye and ground/ no Neutral
Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
3-phase delta
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Delta and ground/ No Neutral
Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
High leg delta
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High leg Delta/ with ground and Neutral
Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
High leg uses orange wire
High leg delta Delta primary coil and High-leg delta secondary coil inside 3 transformers
Shows 3 transformers, and shows both primary winding and secondary winding basics inside each transformer, plus secondary output potentials that will connect to service panel
Primary coil (or winding) is connected to 3-phase utility wires arriving at pole.
Secondary coil is connected to service wires that feed into service panel and circuit breakers.
Configuration shows Delta primary coil. And High leg delta secondary coil.

If coil inside transformer is wound in Delta configuration, there is no point where equal potential can be made between line and neutral.
The midpoint winding S3 is tapped which gives 120V or 208 volt to line.
S1 coil on one side of delta and S2 coil on other side of delta cannot carry 120Volt loads.
Center tap on S3 coil is used for all 120Volt loads, plus S3 coil is used for 1/3 all 3-phase loads, causing potential imbalance.
120Volt loads must not exceed 5% of total Kva to preserve balance across 3 phase lines
The wild leg, or Leg B, or Phase B, is illustrated as Secondary B, and is marked with orange dot since the orange wire connects to this leg

High leg wire color is orange. High leg delta wire color
Resource:
Read Wikipedia about high-leg delta

How to wire 3-phase outlets and surge protection
3-phase wiring 3 phase outlets and plugs have locking blades
3-phase terminals are marked X-Y-Z-G or X-Y-Z-W-G

Hot Hot Hot Neutral Ground
If device is marked X Y N G, then it is considered single phase even though it has 4 wiring terminals

Buy:
3-phase locking outlet
3-phase locking plug
3-phase wiring
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277 480 Three Phase WYE
480 volts across line-to-line
277 volts line-to-neutral

All Wye connections provide two voltages due to the common point or neutral connection.

Line-to-line voltage = 480V
Line-to-neutral voltage = 277V
277 Volt x √3 = 479.778 Volt

√3 = 1.7320

3-phase wiring
Larger image
277 480 Three Phase WYE
4-wire
480 volts across line-to-line
277 volts line-to-neutral
Shows equipment ground

3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt surge protection
Buy:
AG4803C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
277 480 3-phase WYE
Use AG4803CE surge protector

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Three Phase 480V
3-wire
480 volts across line-to-line
No system ground
Shows equipment ground
480 3 phase delta
Use AG4803D3 surge protector
Three Phase 480V delta corner ground
4-wire
480 volts across line-to-line

3-phase wiring
Larger image
120 208V 3-phase wye
4-wire
208 volts across line-to-line
120 volts line-to-neutral

3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt surge
Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/ 

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual
3-phase wiring
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120 208V 3-phase wye
3 phase 4 wire
208 volts across line-to-line
120 volts line-to-neutral
Shows equipment ground
120 208 3-phase wye
Use AG2083C3 surge protector
120 208V 3-phase wye surge protection
Intermatic AG208C3 Surge protection
Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/ 

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual

208 Volt 3-wire delta
3 Phase 3 wire 208 No Neutral

Phase to phase 208V
3-phase wiring
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347 600V three phase wye

600 volts across line-to-line
347 volts line-to-neutral
3-phase wiring
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347 600V three phase wye

600 volts across line-to-line
347 volts line-to-neutral
Shows equipment ground

3 phase 4 wire 600 volt surge protection
Buy:
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual

347 600 3 phase wye
Use AG65033 surge protector
347 600V three phase wye
Intermatic AG65033 Surge Protection

Buy:
Intermatic surge protection

Resource:
How to wire 3-phase surge protection
How to wire 600 volt outlet
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Three Phase 600V

600 volts across line-to-line

No system ground

Shows equipment ground
How to wire 240 volt outlet and plug
Larger image
Three phase 250V

250V across each line

No ground
240 Delta 3-phase
Use AG2403D3 surge protector
how to wire 3-phase Three phase 250V

250V across each line

With ground
High leg DeltaHigh leg delta   120-240 High leg Delta
Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protection

Black Line to Black Line 240V
Black Line to Neutral 120V
Red or Orange Line to Neutral 208V

3-phase 4-wire 4-wire High leg delta surge
Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
120 240 high leg delta
Use AG2403C3 surge protector
240-480 High leg Delta
Phase to phase 480V
Phase A Phase C to Neutral 240V
Phase B high leg to Neutral 415V
Voltages are doubled compared with 120-240 high leg




How to wire 480 volt outlet and plug
Larger image
277 480 Volts Single phase

With equipment ground
277 480 single phase
Use AG48013 Surge protector
wire 3-phase 125 250 Volts Single phase

With equipment ground
277 480 Volts Single phase surge protection

Single phase 277-480V surge
Buy:
AG48013 Type 1 Type

Resources:
Single phase 277-480 / 480-480 volt surge manual/ pdf
3-phase wire size
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3-phase Wire and Breaker size chart
3 phase non-simultaneous water heater
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3-phase water heater non-simultaneous
Unbalanced
Both elements are never ON at same time.
Always use ECO-protected thermostat on upper and lower
Elements will heat with any applied voltage
Each element has volts and watts listed on side.
Volts squared divided by watts = correct ohm rating to test if element is good.

Resource:
Wiring diagrams and information about 3-phase water heaters
3-phase timer 3-phase timer
Buildings with 3-phase power normally have Neutral wire used to power ordinary 120Volt outlets.

1) Use 120 Volt timer.
2) Install 3-pole contactor with 120Volt coil
3) Timer controls 120Volt coil.
4) 3-pole contactor turns 3-phase power ON-and-OFF.

Resource and diagrams:
How to wire 3-phase timer
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