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2014

How to wire 3-phase

power generation Buy Related Books:
3-phase power generation book at Amazon
3-phase wiring books at Amazon

Resource:
What is 3-phase/ from power plant to end user/ with illustrations
Electricians forum
Electricity from power plant to distribution substation
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3-phase is 3 Hot wires from power plant: 

Power plant produces 3-phase
Step down transformers at power plant reduce amperage and increase voltage for transmission
High voltage and low amperage means less heat loss during transmission
Example transmission tower brings 500,000 volts to local substation
Many different voltage lines leave power plant going different directions
High voltage arrives at local substation
Local substation transformers lower voltage and increase amperage
Wooden poles leave local substation carrying 69,000 volts or other voltages going to other local substations. Primary distribution voltages range from 2,400 Volts to 69,000 Volts.
Below 1,500 Volts increases distribution cost due to heat loss from higher amps.
Local substations lower voltage increase amperage again. This power is then distributed to local homes and businesses.
For example Hot wire supplying power to household transformer might carry 7000 volts.

Resource:
Electric power distribution system operation 1990/ pdf

3-phase power
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3-Phase voltage is determined by transformers installed by utility: 

3-transformer 3-phase

3 Hot wires arrive at power pole
Drop lines from each hot wire enter 3 separate transformers.

Transformers can be different at each location
Different transformers and transformer configurations produce different voltages
Transformers are wired together to product Delta configuration, or Wye configuration
3-wire Primary Wye to 4-wire secondary Wye
3-wire primary Delta to 3-wire secondary Delta
4-wire primary Wye to 3-wire secondary Delta
3-wire primary Delta to 4-wire secondary Wye
See illustrations/ pdf

Generally, 3 secondary Hot wires and a neutral wire drop down to building. Other applications do not have neutral 

Having Neutral wire gives more voltage options for electrician.
Combination of Hots and neutral give wide variety of voltages in US and across world
240-120V, 208-120V, 230-133V, 400-230v, 415-230v, 480-277V, 600-347V

Resources:
See chart of 3-phase worldwide
Tranformer basics
Basic-3-phase-transformer-training.pdf
3-phase circuits with basic math/ pdf
Distribution transformers with illustrations/ pdf
Distribution transformers 2 / pdf
Distribution transformers 3/ pdf
Common wiring configurations/ pdf
3-phase open wye and open delta

2 transformer 3-phase for smaller loads

Third transformer added when load exceeds capacity of two transformers.

2 primary Hots connect to 2 transformers
Wye delta
3 primary hots connect to 2 transformers
2 transformer 3-phase
Transformer wiring illustrations
3-phase from single phase

3-phase from 1 transformer

Residential neighborhood wiring can provide 3-phase service
Single 7200 Volt primary Hot wire and Neutral connect to single transformer.
Transformer converts single phase into 3-wire 3-phase

This service provides power to small in-home beauty shop
3 phase service
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Different image

3 phase weatherhead, meter and breaker panel

3 Hot wires and 1 Neutral wire arrives at service
Resources:
Electric service installation/ pdf
3-phase wiring specs/ pdf
3-phase meter

3 phase meter has 7 prongs

1 prong for Neutral
3 prongs for incoming Hot wires
3 prongs for Hot wires going to breaker panel
High leg delta: High leg connects to prongs on right of neutral prong
Resource:
Buy 3-phase electric meter
3-phase meter                  3-phase meter without neutral         
With neutral                                                   Without neutral
Larger image                                                       Larger image

Example 3 phase meter box illustration/ 

With and w/out neutral

If service does not have neutral wire, then ground wire still connects as shown.
Meter stabs into meter box.
Always turn off all breakers and electric usage when removing and installing meter to avoid arc and surge
Wires leave meter box and enter the breaker panel

High leg delta: High leg connects to terminals on right of neutral prong, or Line 3.
High leg wiring will have neutral wire

Resource:
3-phase meter box wiring/ pdf

Single-phase meter wiring/ pdf
3-phase meters

Meter box illustration: 4-wire Wye and Delta

Illustration on right shows location of High Leg
Both illustrations are identical for Wye and Delta

Resources:
Example service installation manual
How to wire 3-phase electric meter
            3-phase wye

More voltages are available when panel has Neutral

Look at caption below each illustration on left
Without Neutral, then panel has 208Volt
With Neutral, then panel has both 208V and 120V

Test across any two Hot wires shows 208V, while testing Hot to Neutral shows 120V
       Line-to-line voltage = line to neutral x √3
       √3 = 1.732
       120V x 1.732 = 208V
Same with 480V-277V: Test across any two hot wires shows 480V, while testing Hot to neutral shows 277V
Exception is High leg delta, where testing across any two Hot wires shows 240Volts, but testing Hot to Neutral shows 120V or 208V

Resources:
See more wiring diagrams/ scroll down page
See wiring diagram for High leg delta/ scroll down page
Formulas for 3-phase
Estimate line-to-line voltages
3-phase service panel
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Example 3 phase breaker panel

Generally 3 hot wires from meter attach to 3-pole main breaker
Neutral connects to Neutral busbar
Ground wire (not shown) connects to ground busbar.
Some services do not have Neutral wire, and neutral busbar might be used for grounding.

If both busbars on either side of hot busbars are used for Neutrals, Then separate ground busbar is added inside panel.


3-pole breakers fit over each 3 Hot busbars

There are 3 hot busbars in 3-phase panel.
Each hot wire supplies power to separate busbar
Illustration shows where 3-pole breaker snaps into place
Buy:
3-phase panel, subpanel, and breakers at Amazon
3-phase distribution panel
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3-phase distribution panel/ Example 120-208 Volt

4-wire
3 Hot and 1 Neutral enter meter box
3 Hot and 1 Neutral enter distribution panel

3-pole breakers snap onto busbars
3-pole breaker supplies power to 3-phase circuit with 3 Hot wires, with Neutral wire and ground wire

1 Hot is drawn from a 3-pole breaker
1 Hot and Neutral supply power to 120 Volt outlets
3 phase busbar

Each hot busbar looks different for ez identification

3-phase breaker snaps over 3 hot busbars
Example 3-pole or 3-phase breaker would snap over 3 hot busbars, and then blue, red and black wires connected to breaker.

3-phase high leg delta

Wire colors vary

For example high-leg Delta the high leg is orange colored wire
High leg is orange wire and is always 3rd wire down
Other countries have different wire colors

High leg wire color is orange. High leg delta wire color
3-phase 240Volt
High leg to other legs 240Volt
High leg to Neutral 208Volt
Other legs to neutral 120Volt
Other legs to each other 240Volt
Resource:
Wire color codes at Wikipedia

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Example single-pole breaker in 3-phase panel

Color added for illustration
Colors
3-phase motor wiring
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Example 3 phase circuit

Wire colors vary
3-phase breaker located in panel
3-phase 3-wire goes to contactor (or motor starter) and then to motor.
Grounding indicated, but ground wire not shown
No neutral wire shown, and not needed for example motor circuit
2 Hot wires pulled from 3-phase go to double-pole switch or timer.
Switch or timer activates motor starter or contactor, which starts motor.

Fused disconnected added between breaker and starter and motor, and is located at motor.
Required by code to protect anyone servicing motor and to protect wires and motor from overheat..
Fused disconnect added between 3-phase and double-pole switch or timer.
Required by code to protect anyone working on circuit, and to protect wires, switch and contactor
Resource:
How to wire 3-phase timer
3-phase motor starter wiring/ pdf
Buy:
3-pole contactors at Amazon
3-pole disconnect at Amazon
Leviton MS302-DS 600Volt 30 amp double-pole motor switch at Amazon
3 phase circuit
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Schematic showing same circuit above

Wirning from breaker panel to motor

Resources:
How to wire 3-phase timer
3-phase 2-speed electic motor
Cooper phase wiring diagrams
3-phase motor wiring diagrams
Formulas for 3-phase

Buy 3-pole contactors

3-pole contactors at Amazon
Mars 2-pole and 3-pole contactors at Amazon

3-pole 120Volt coil

Square D 40 amp 120V coil at Amazon
Siemens 42CF35AF 40 amp 120V coil
Packard 3-pole 40 amp /120V coil at Amazon

Packard 3-pole 60 amp contactor 120Volr coil
Packard 3-pole 120V coil with delay timer contactor-block connection

3pole 24Volt coil

90 amp 3-pole 24Volt lug connection
90 amp 3-pole 24Volt lug connection
75 amp 3-pole 24V coil
50-60 amp 3-pole 24V coil

3 pole 240Volt coil

90 amp 3-pole 240Volt coil Amazon
90 amp 3-pole 208-240Volt coil Amazon
90 amp 3-pole 240V coil
30 amp 3-pole 240V coil

3 pole 277volt coil
90 amp 277V coil 3-pole lug terminals
75 amp 277V coil 3-pole lug terminals
30 amp 277V coil 3-pole

3 pole 480Volt coil
40 amp 480V coil at Amazon
60 amp 480V coil at Amazon
75 amp 480V coil at Amazon
75-90 amp 480V coil at Amazon
120 amp 480V coil at Amazon

3-phase industrial timers

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Square D transformer
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Type 3R outdoor enclosure

Buck-boost transformer/ buck down-boost up

Buck voltage down
Or boost voltage up.

This single-phase transformer bucks down voltage. 
Convert 240Volt to 120Volt without neutral wire from breaker box.
Convert 2-wire 480Volt to 240Volt or 120Volt
Buy:
Square D transformers at Amazon
Allow 12" clearance top and sides

Buck boost transformer wiring
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Example: Buck-boost transformer wiring

Primary wiring input:
480Volt primary input connects to H1 H4, and then H2 and H3 are connected together
OR
240Volt primary input connects to H1 H4, and then H3 connects to H1, and H2 connects to H4
Secondary wiring output
240Volt secondary output connects to X1 X4, and then X
2 and X3 are connected together
OR
120Volt secondary output connects to 
X1 X4, and then X3 connects to X1, and X2 connects to X4
Buy:
Square D transformers at Amazon
Transformer configurations

Example 3-phase Transformer configurations

Inside each transformer are 2 coils of wire. The primary coil and secondary coil.
The primary coil connects to high voltage from utility, and not shown in these illustrations.
The secondary coil connects to customer service.
The secondary coil is shown in each illustrations, but not the primary coil.
Generally, there are three transformers at each 3-phase service.
Each swiggly line in illustration represents secondary coil inside each of the 3 transformers.
Some transformers have more than 1 primary and 1 secondary coil
Resource:
Tranformer basics

3-phase wye with neutral
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Wye with Neutral and Ground

Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
3-phase wye with ground
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Wye and ground/ no Neutral

Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
3-phase delta
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Delta and ground/ No Neutral

Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
High leg delta
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High leg Delta/ with ground and Neutral

Shows secondary winding outputs from 3 transformers to panel
High leg uses orange wire
High leg delta

Delta primary coil and High-leg delta secondary coil inside 3 transformers

Shows 3 transformers, and shows both primary winding and secondary winding basics inside each transformer, plus secondary output potentials that will connect to service panel
Primary coil (or winding) is connected to 3-phase utility wires arriving at pole.
Secondary coil is connected to service wires that feed into service panel and circuit breakers.
Configuration shows Delta primary coil. And High leg delta secondary coil.

If coil inside transformer is wound in Delta configuration, there is no point where equal potential can be made between line and neutral.
The midpoint winding S3 is tapped which gives 120V or 208 volt to line.
S1 coil on one side of delta and S2 coil on other side of delta cannot carry 120Volt loads.
Center tap on S3 coil is used for all 120Volt loads, plus S3 coil is used for 1/3 all 3-phase loads, causing potential imbalance.
120Volt loads must not exceed 5% of total Kva to preserve balance across 3 phase lines
The wild leg, or Leg B, or Phase B, is illustrated as Secondary B, and is marked with orange dot since the orange wire connects to this leg

High leg wire color is orange. High leg delta wire color
Resources:
Read wikipedi abouyt high-leg delta


How to wire 3-phase outlets and surge protection

3-phase wiring
3-phase wiring
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277 480 Three Phase WYE


480 volts across line-to-line

277 volts line-to-neutral

All Wye connections provide two voltages due to the common point or neutral connection.

Line-to-line voltage = 480V
Line-to-neutral voltage = 277V
277 Volt x √3 = 479.778 Volt

√3 = 1.7320


3-phase wiring
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277 480 Three Phase WYE


480 volts across line-to-line

277 volts line-to-neutral

Shows equipment ground
277 480 3-phase WYE
Use AG4803CE surge protector

Intermatic 3-phase surge / pdf:
AG48013
AG65033

AG24013
AG2403C3
AG2083C3

Larger image

Three Phase 480V


480 volts across line-to-line

No system ground

Shows equipment ground
480 3 phase delta
Use AG4803D3 surge protector

Three Phase 480V delta corner ground


480 volts across line-to-line

3-phase wiring
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120 208V 3-phase wye


208 volts across line-to-line

120 volts line-to-neutral

3-phase wiring
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120 208V 3-phase wye

3 phase 4 wire
 
208 volts across line-to-line

120 volts line-to-neutral

Shows equipment ground
120 208 3-phase wye
Use AG2083C3 surge protector

120 208V 3-phase wye

Intermatic AG208C3 Surge

208 Volt 3-wire delta

3 Phase 3 wire 208 No Neutral

Phase to phase 208V

3-phase wiring
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347 600V three phase wye


600 volts across line-to-line

347 volts line-to-neutral
3-phase wiring
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347 600V three phase wye


600 volts across line-to-line

347 volts line-to-neutral

Shows equipment ground
347 600 3 phase wye
Use AG65033 surge protector

347 600V three phase wye

Intermatic AG65033 Surge Protection

How to wire 600 volt outlet
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Three Phase 600V


600 volts across line-to-line

No system ground

Shows equipment ground

How to wire 240 volt outlet and plug
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Three phase 250V


250V across each line

No ground
240 Delta 3-phase
Use AG2403D3 surge protector
how to wire 3-phase

Three phase 250V


250V across each line

With ground
High leg DeltaHigh leg delta  

120-240 High leg Delta

Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protection

Black Line to Black Line 240V

Black Line to Neutral 120V

Red or Orange Line to Neutral 208V
120 240 high leg delta
Use AG2403C3 surge protector

240-480 High leg Delta


Phase to phase 480V

Phase A Phase C to Neutral 240V

Phase B high leg to Neutral 415V

Voltages are doubled compared with 120-240 high leg




How to wire 480 volt outlet and plug
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277 480 Volts Single phase

With equipment ground
277 480 single phase
Use AG48013 Surge protector
wire 3-phase

125 250 Volts Single phase


With equipment ground

277 480 Volts Single phase

Intermatic AG48013 Surge

3-phase wire size
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3-phase Wire and Breaker size chart

3 phase non-simultaneous water heater
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Wire water heater for 3-phase non-simultaneous

Unbalanced
Both elements are never ON at same time.
Always use ECO-protected thermostat on upper and lower
Elements will heat with any applied voltage
Each element has volts and watts listed on side.
Volts squared divided by watts = correct ohm rating to test if element is good.

Resources:
Wiring diagrams and information about 3-phase water heaters
3 phase water heater elements
Larger image

Balanced and unbalanced element wiring

3 phase water heater elements
Balanced means equal draw across all three Hot legs in 3-phase circuit
Unbalanced draws power from 2 legs for one element, and 2 legs for other element, so one leg is constantly ON when thermostat calls for demand. Other two legs alternate depending if power is on upper/lower element.

Balance heat element has 6 wires, and 3 heating loops
Elements will heat with any typical voltage

3-phase heating element
3-phase electric water heater service manual

How to wire 3-phase timer

3-phase timer Buildings with 3-phase power also have Neutral wire used to power ordinary 120Volt outlets.

1) Use 120 Volt timer.

2) Install 3-pole contactor with 120Volt coil

3) Timer controls 120Volt coil.

4) 3-pole contactor turns 3-phase power ON-andOFF.

More resources and diagrams:
How to wire 3-phase timer

Additional links:

 EJ500 Utilitec Tork ST01C  ST01C ETW350 Aube T1032Aube Intermatic EI500Intermatic
    Water heater
GE  Leviton Hagar Westek TE06WHBWoods Sylvania




Timex
Intermatic Ei400 countdown timer Countdown

Intermatic parts
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 Dayton Power pack
3-phase timer
3-phase timer
Sylvania timers
Tork timers and manuals
Tork TU universal timer
Paragon timers and manuals
Tork TU universal timer
Westek box timers

How to set analog  timers
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Westinghouse timers
Timex timers
Brinks timers
Gardena timers
Gardena T1030
Wire GE 15207 timer

GE box timers

Intermatic EH10 timer
EH10 timer
Intermatic T1906 and T1905
  
Intermatic T-101 T103 T104
Intermatic EH40 and WH40
  
Troubleshoot intermatic
Intermatic sprinkler timers
Intermatic pool timers and manuals
Intermatic T104P201
Intermatic timers
Intermatic GM series

Intermatic GM series
How to wire Intermatic GM40
How to wire Tork DTU40
Tork-DTU40
Intermatic CA3750
Control water heater with phone
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Resources:
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How to install electric water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater
Gas and electric water heaters Industrial electric at Amazon

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