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Type 1 and type 2 surge protection surge protection
2016
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How to wire Whole-house surge protector: 

Type 1 installation:
Type 1 is installed before main breaker panel ... or installed between power company transformer and main breaker box or cut off. Installed on line before circuit breakers [breakers are overcurrent protection]
"A typical installation of a Type 1 SPD [surge protection device] will be connected between the secondary of the service transformer and the line side of the service panel. This installation is intended to be installed without overcurrent protection to the SPD." Type 1 can also be installed on the main breaker panel or anywhere in the distribution system.
Some devices are rated for Type 1 or Type 2.... which means they are rated Type 1 and can be installed anywhere from the distribution transformer to breaker box to HVAC equipment or at detached barn or garage
Type 2 installation:
Type 2 is installed in or at the main breaker panel.... or connected to Load side of main breaker panel... can be connected to circuit breaker, or can be snapped onto breaker busbar.
"A typical installation of a Type 2 SPD will be connected to the load side of the service panel and is intended to be installed with overcurrent protection to the SPD."
Surge Protector vrs Surge arrestor
Surge protector will clamp the surge... or absorb the surge.  Surge arrestor will redirect high energy to ground wire.  More info on surge
Surge protectors wear out: Surge protectors are constantly in use.
3 types of surge: Disruptive enters electronics and causes malfunction of logic and lock up. Dissipative is repetitive, pulsing short-duration causing early demise of equipment. Destructive is high level energy that causes immediate failure of equipment.
Surge protection
Larger image
Type 1 permanently connected, hard wired SPD surge protection device installed before or after main breaker box or main disconnect. Type 1 is located between secondary on service transformer and line side of service entrance (main breaker box or main disconnect). Or anywhere on load side of service entrance including at equipment location (HVAC disconnect etc).
Type 2 is installed at the main disconnect or at breaker box or at the equipment location (for example at HVAC disconnect etc). Usually connected to overcurrent protection (connected to circuit breaker or disconnect) depending on listing..., read instruction manual for device to see if overcurrent protection is required.
Type 3 is used in addition to Type 1 or 2 protection, especially when location is farther away. Install as surge outlet or surge protection strip or surge supressor at your computer, or at any location farther than 50 feet away from main surge protection. Type 3 is connected to ground and not to overcurrent protection.

Surge protection that is rated Type 1 is considered Type1 Type2 and can be installed anywhere within the distribution system. Multiple surge protectors can be installed, and will protect better as distances increase... because surge, such as lightning, can enter wires anywhere.
Resources
Surge protection .pdf
How to wire disconnects /safety switches
Why you need ground
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge
Install at service panel or branch panel
120-240V
Type 2 surge suppressor
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Intermatic Type 2 residential breaker box
Intermatic lower cost residential
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge
Install at service panel or branch panel
120-240V
Type 2 surge suppressor
Buy:
Leviton residential surge protector at Amazon

Resources:
Leviton 5120-1 whole house surge protector/ pdf

Homeline surge protector
240V 150 VAC
500V clamping/ 27,000 amps
Simple installation:
Install directly on busbar in breaker box
Connect white wite to neutral busbar
Buy:
Square D push-on type residential surge protector at Amazon

Resource:
Plug on surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf

240V 150 VAC
Simple installation:
Install directly on busbar in breaker box
Connect white wite to neutral busbar
Buy:
HOM2175SB at Amazon
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon

Snap-on breaker use Homeline QO2175SB for square D QO-type panels
Resource:
Plug on surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
secondary surge arrestor
Secondary surge arrestor
Indoor/ outdoor can be located anywhere on electrical system
Type 1 surge arrestor 25,000 amp
Use for pumps, motors, service entrance
Locations more than 90' from service
Nema 4 harsh environment
120-240V 150 VAC
Arrestor: when energy is large enough, it jumps the gap to ground or earth
Buy:
Square D secondary SDSA1175 3-wire

Resource:
SDSA1175 .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
Intermatic AG3000
With $7500 warranty
Larger image
Home or commercial
$7500 connected warranty/ includes electronic components
AG3000/ PS3000 Type 1 and type 2
36" long, 10 gauge wire
120-240 Vac
Nema 4X indoor-outdoor harsh environment
Buy:
AG3000 universal surge protection
PS3000 surge protector
Pool and spa surge protection
Resources:
AG3000 Surge protection manual
PS3000 surge protection manual
$7500 warranty/ pdf
Read about compressor defender
surge protector
Best seller
Residential whole house.
Install at service panel or branch panel
Connect to breaker
12 gauge wire
120-240Vac
Nema 4X indoor-outdoor harsh environment
Buy
Square D / HEPD80 at Amazon

Resource:
HEPD surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
co-ax surge protector
Co-ax surge
Type 3 surge protection
Connect to ground surge protectors
Redirects surge to ground rod
Arrestor: when energy is large enough, it jumps the gap to ground or earth
Buy:    
Ethernet surge protector
Broadband cable lightning surge
Co-ax surge protector
Type 3 surge protection

Buy:
24 Volt DC surge protector
Secondary surge protector and circuit breaker
Plug on busbar in breaker box
Siemens secondary surge protector and circuit breaker/ 3 breaker slots/ 120-240
Locations more than 90' from service panel... for example in back yard shop
Buy:
Siemens secondary surge protector and circuit breaker
QO type surge protector
QO type surge protector
Snap down type breaker panel
Install directly on busbar in breaker box
Buy:
QO type surge at Amazon
Wall outlet surge protector        Outlet polarity
Image of back

Wall outlet surge suppression/ point-of-use/ Type 3 for electronics and for gas water heaters/ Indoor application

Type 3/ Two surge-suppression outlets protects against voltage surge/
Single-event protection requires replacement.
Hot, neutral and ground wire needed/ can replace any ordinary outlet
Serves only this device/ CANNOT protect other outlets on same circuit
Protect devices such as microwave, machine tool, copier, gas water heater, computer, cell phone charge etc.
Meets standard for new water heaters that plug into outlet
Use with tankless gas water heater to protect PC board
Buy:
15 amp surge suppressor receptacle
Leviton J-box surge protection kit
15 amp duplex surge protector
20 amp commercial surge protector
Resources
Surge protection sell sheet
Outlet surge supression manual
Surge protection outlet manual
How to install gas water heater
Intermatic compressor defender
With $7500 warranty

Intermatic compressor defender protects brown-out and surge/ Type1 Type2/ $25,000 warranty/ 10 year/Nema 4X harsh environment

Surge protection PLUS brownout protection
Residential + light commercial
Type2 install at HVAC disconnect
Buy:
Compressor defender at Amazon
Resources:
Read about compressor defender
Install video
Intermatic surge protection module
Larger image    Another image

Intermatic modular surge protection/ Type 1 Type 2/ $25,000 warranty/ 10 year/ Nema 4X harsh environment

Type 1 or type 2/ single phase
Household surge protection
With replaceable modules
Modules snap into place
No need for rewiring when surge is replaced > snap off breaker > insert new module > snap on breaker

Buy
Whole house type 1 2 surge protection with 10 year warranty
Replacement module for type 1 and 2 with 1 year warranty

Rsources:
Installation video
Sell sheet
Manual with wiring/ 10 gauge wire

Intermatic surge protection
Keep wires as straight as possible
Use long sweep turns
Cut off extra wire
Do not wrap extra wire
Commercial and residential
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
Single phase and 3-phase models
Choice of voltages
Type 4 rainproof enclosure
Type 1 or Type 2 installation
1 year warranty
Install vertical or horizontal etc
36" leads/ 12 gauge wire/ Cut to correct length, do not coil or wrap extra lead wire, avoid 90 degree bends, 4' radius on bends, keep wires straight as possible/ 1 year warranty

Single phase 120-240V Volt

Buy:
AG24013 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
Single phase 120-240 volt surge manual

Single phase 277-480V

Buy:
AG48013 Type 1 Type

Resources:
Single phase 277-480 / 480-480 volt surge manual/ pdf

Single phase 4 wire 600 volt

Buy: 
AG65033/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual

3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt

Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta

Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual

3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt

Buy:
AG4803C3 Tpe 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf

3 phase 4 wire 600 volt

Buy:
AG65033/
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual
Water heaters and Tankless water heaters are not protected from surge.
Microwave, washing machine, etc are not protected from surge.

microwave, oven
Homeowner insurance might have appliance exclusion. Read homeowner policy
Water heater warranty does not cover surge event.
Protect 120V and 240V circuits with whole house surge protector
Whole house surge will protect all 120Volt and 240Volt household electronics like microwave, dishwasher, oven, water heater, timers etc that have no surge protection. Aso protects breakers and wires.
Install as close to main breaker as possible. Connect to 20 amp duple-pole breaker. Connect to Neutral and ground.

240v appliances not protected from surge/ Oven, HVAC etc.

Water heaters with electronics, microwave, timers etc are not protected from surge

Resource:
Why use surge protection/ pdf?
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon

Surge protection will protect:

-Will protect from most/some nearby lightning strikes... both in the air and nearby ground strikes... energized wires might exceed surge rating
-Will protect from most line surges caused by lightning hitting power grid nearby... but local transformer has a fuse/ lightning arrestor that trips open

-Will protect from surge caused by power resumption after outage.
-Will protect from most line surges caused by power-company transformer variations

-Household surge protector might not protect home devices from repetitive overvoltage generated by equipment, such as table saw or defective motor etc
-Light switches and furnace igniter can be surge generators.

Operation of surge protector:

-Surge protector must be replaced after each surge event.
-Red light shows on unit; indicates operational status/ no light, then check if unit is getting power/ or unit needs to be replaced

Rules for installing surge protector

-Should be installed two slots nearest to main breaker. So surge enters protector first.
-One surge protector should be installed in each breaker box. Surge can arrive at any breaker box independently. Electricity does unusual things.
-Ratings for surge protection varies by amount of power each will absorb... generally cheaper one will absorb less surge
Always install surge as close as possible to sensitive equipment. Do not expect surge protector inside house to protect equipment more than 90 feet away.
For equipment located more than 90 feet away... add dedicated surge.
SPD must provide a protective level of surge clamping.
Protection is measured in Joules. Higher joules means more surge protection. But at some point, the added protection over risk is not worth spending more.

There are primary and secondary surge protection devices. Exact classification is muddy. Surge protection can be added at service entrance, at breaker panel, at the HVAC or heat pump unit, or single circuit, or at each household TV, or on low voltage applications.

Lightning

Surge protector will not stop destruction caused by lightning strike within 90 feet, or more depending on event
Lightning is main problem when figuring home surge protection. NO surge protector can protect from direct lightning strike, or very close strike: 90 feet. Highly destructive, ultra-rapid, overvoltage event
Must install LPS or lightning protection system, such as lightning rod with grounded copper cable to meet local ground standards for depth etc.
Risk of lightning is higher when home is near pond, high on hill, or sitting alone. Higher structures or multiple structures nearby, will reduce lightning risk.
Low risk lightning is 1 mile away.

Grounding is important for preventing surge

- Surge can enter the home through the grounding rod. By code all ground rods must be bonded together. But frequently a ground rod added for phone or   satellite dish is not bonded (connected) to the main household ground system. Pool equipment often has a control panel that requires direct bond to ground rod, but often this control panel receives ground wire from main panel, which might meet local code. While solar panels require their own ground rod, and frequently this ground is not bonded with home. Codes for grounding vary by locale.
For example, ground rods work best in dense wet soil, rather than loose dry or rocky soil. Each region has local codes that specify grounding.
Making sure all grounding is bonded together is a major step for reducing hazards and protecting home from surge. Why? Because surge can enter on satellite TV line, and the satellite ground rod is not as effective as service panel ground for dampening the effect of surge.
Grounding to water pipe is not sufficient ground. Pipe is frequently non-conductive plastic. Ground must be applied to approved ground rod driven into soil.
Older homes without grounding are at greater risk of surge. Homes with improper wiring are at greater risk. Undersized wire, non-code wring such as using ground wire as neutral increase risk of hazard and loss. Upgrading service advised.
Tripped fuse
Tripped lightning arrestor and fuse
Purpose of this arrestor is protection of transformer, and not protection of your home.
Your home is still vulnerable
Larger image

This is example of upstream Surge arrestor

Type 2 Surge suppressor (surge protector) is installed inside main breaker panel

Line noise:

Surge protection is not made for filtering line noise... unless specified. Surge is not line noise. Surge is increase in voltage on wire. Line noise is disturbance of voltage causing electrons to move erratically instead of flowing predictably. Line noise effects devices and processes that require 'clean' electric power. Manufacturing microprocessors requires very clean electric power.  Filters reduce high-frequency line noise broadcast onto household wires from using photocopier, arc welder, light dimmer. 
Most household electronic devices today have filters. Many inexpensive electronic devices do not have noise filters. Example using timers: some timers rated for water heaters, or a timer rated for incandescent bulbs, might not have a filter. Line noise caused by connecting timer to wrong device, such as motor or fluorescent bulb, will affect timer operation. Line noise can scramble timer programming, while surge can completely destroy timer functionality. Reset timer to see if functionality can be restored.

Installation starts here

Whole house surge

Step 1: Select surge protector

Surge protector is single-use and must be replaced after surge event such as lightning strike.
Indicator light shows when surge is working.
NO Indicator light, then replacement is required.
Each surge is rated to protect residential panel 120V and 240V.

Shorter wires provide better protection
No protection for equipment located more than 90 feet away.
Install dedicated surge for equipment more than 90 feet away

Photoeye and devices outside home are less protected or not protected
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Intermatic Type 2 residential
Intermatic lower cost residential
Leviton residential
Siemens has circuit breaker and surge requires 3 slots
Siemens circuit breaker and surge

Step 2: Connect surge protector to 20 amp breaker located on two slots nearest main breaker

Wires connected to main breaker are HOT at all times even when all breakers are off
Instructions for wiring
Connect both black wires from surge to 20 amp circuit breaker.
Connect white to neutral busbar.
Connect green to ground busbar.

Whole house surge will protect both sides of single-phase (aka split phase) service panel.
Surge protector is single-use and must be replaced after surge event such as lightning strike.

Indicator light/ brief troubleshoot
Green indicator light shows when protection is ON.
If indicator is OFF, then check if unit is receiving 240Volts.

If one leg of breaker is tripped, then phase power is not ON, and indicator light will not light up.
Reset breaker fully off and then back on.
If phase power is good, and indicator is off, then surge has exceeded device rating. Replace surge protector.
Leviton whole house surge protector

Connect surge protector to 20 amp double-pole breaker

Wiring in illustration is against code.... NO wires can pass above main breaker or wires that remain fully hot at all times. In this example, the wire from surge protector should enter panel on other side, or travel down to bottom of panel and then back up other side to breaker.

Must be connected on breaker next to main breaker as illustrated.
Both black wires connect to circuit breaker.
White to neutral.
Green to ground.

Indicator light
Green indicator light shows when protection is ON.
If indicator is OFF, then check if unit is receiving 240Volts.
If phase power is good, and indicator is off, then surge has exceeded device rating. Replace surge protector.

Example push-on breaker installation
Hook one end on cleat,rotate breaker down to busbar, push breaker onto busbar-

Install ordinary 20 amp double-pole breaker next to main breaker

Match brand of breaker with brand of main breaker box
Note if 120Volt breakers are BR 1" wide or CH 3/4" wide
240Volt BR requires 2" space/ 240Volt CH requires 1-1/2" space

Buy:
Example GE 2-pole 20 amp BR-type breaker at Amazon
Example Siemens 2-pole 20 amp BR at Amazon
Example Eaton 2-pole 20 amp BR at Amazon
Example Cuttler Hammer 2-pole 20 amp BR at Amazon
Example Square D 2-pole 20 amp BR at Amazon
Resource:
How to replace circuit breaker

Buy double 120V tandem breaker to make more slots available:
Example Siemens tandem at Amazon
Example Eaton tandem at Amazon
Example Cuttler Hammer plug-on tandem  at Amazon
Example Cuttler Hammer tandem  at Amazon
Example Square D tandem at Amazon
If main breaker is tripping, or getting hot, then surge is not problem
Do a stress test on main breaker
Main breaker stress test
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge
Larger image

Intermatic/ 

Connects to 2-pole 20 amp breaker/ indicator light visible without opening panel door/ can be replaced without entering main panel

Wires connect to breaker and to neutral busbar
Both black wire connect to 20 amp breaker locate at top of main panel
White wire connects to neutral busbar
Green wire connects to ground busbar
Must be replaced after surge event
Protects business/ Protects circuit breaker panel/ Protects 120V and 240V circuits/ Protects 120-240Volt appliance or water heater with electronics

Does not protect TVs connected to satellite dish/ for TVs use surge protector with co-ax TV connector
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Intermatic Type 2 residential
Intermatic lower cost residential

Resources
Intermatic IG1240RC3 whole house surge protector/ pdf
IG32240RC3 surge protection/ pdf
Household surge protection sell sheet
IG series sell sheet
Surge protection at Intermatic/ on-line
Surge protection glossary/ pdf

3-Phase surge protection
3-phase surge protection
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge

Leviton/ 

Connects to 2-pole 20 amp breaker/ indicator light visible without opening panel door/ can be replaced without entering main panel

Wires connect to breaker and to neutral busbar
Both black wire connect to 20 amp breaker locate at top of main panel
White wire connects to neutral busbar
Green wire connects to ground busbar
Must be replaced after surge event
Protects business/ Protects circuit breaker panel/ Protects 120V and 240V circuits/ Protects 120-240Volt appliance or water heater with electronics

Does not protect TVs connected to satellite dish/ for TVs use surge protector with co-ax TV connector
Buy:
Leviton residential surge protector at Amazon

Resources:
Leviton 5120-1 whole house surge protector/ pdf
Surge protection glossary/ pdf
Homeline surge protector

Square D/ Homeline HOM2175SB surge protector/ 

Replaces 2-pole breaker inside main panel/ must open panel door to see indicator light/ must enter main panel to replace after surge event

Replaces push-on BR type breaker. BR 120Volt breakers are 1" wide. BR240Volt breakers are 2" wide.
Homeline HOM2175SB requires 2 slots at next to main breaker, and is 2" wide
White wire connects to neutral busbar
Green wire (if applicable) connects to ground busbar
Must be replaced after surge event
Protects business/ Protects circuit breaker panel/ Protects 120V and 240V circuits/ Protects 120-240Volt appliance or water heater with electronics

Does not protect TVs connected to satellite dish/ for TVs use surge protector with co-ax TV connector

Buy:
Square D push-on type residential surge protector at Amazon
For snap-on breaker use Homeline QO2175SB for square D QO-type panels
Resources:
See example push-on breaker
main breaker box
Larger image

Ordinary Main panel for home has 120 volt and 240 volt circuits.

This is called single-phase electric power. Phasing is determined by the power company.

- Each 120 volt circuit can include up to 12 outlets, and supply power to lights inside a room.
- Generally each 120 volt circuit sends power to one area of home. This is because the wire leaves breaker box and goes to first junction box inside a room. From the junction box, the wire splits off and goes to each individual box, jumping from box to box until the final box is reached. So each box will have 1 black hot wire, 1 white neutral wire, and 1 ground wire that connect back to main breaker box.
- Some circuit breakers are dedicated to 1 specific appliance. For example the kitchen microwave is usually wired to 1 circuit breaker and no other outlets or lights are connected to that breaker. This is because microwave draws so much amperage. That is called dedicated circuit, and dedicated breaker.

- Each 240 volt circuit is usually dedicated to one appliance. For example electric water heater is connected to 1 240 volt breaker. The electric dryer is connected to another 240 volt breaker. The heat/AC is connected to another 240 volt circuit breaker, and so on.

See inside main breaker box
How to replace circuit breaker
How to install subpanel
Figure volts amps watts for electric water heater

3-phase surge protector


Co-ax surge protector
Buy
Coax surge
Intermatic ig1300 4 telephone, 2 coax surge

Resources:
IG1300-surge /pdf
Buy Intermatic IG1300-4T-2C3 to combine both whole-house surge and co-ax surge
120 240 single phase 120 volt single phase Split phase means ordinary Household 120V-240V service.
Single phase means 120V service.
Most people call 120V-240V service single phase.

Single phase 120-240V Volt

Buy:
AG24013 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
Single phase 120-240 volt surge manual


277 480 3-phase WYE
Use Intermatic AG4803CE surge protector

3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt

Buy:
AG4803C3 Tpe 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
480 3 phase delta
Use Intermatic AG4803C3 surge protector

3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt

Buy:
AG4803C3 Tpe 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
120 208 3-phase wye
Use Intermatic AG2083C3 surge protector

3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt

Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual
120 208V 3-phase wye
Intermatic AG208C3 Surge

3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt

Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual
347 600V three phase wye
Intermatic AG65033 Surge Protection

3 phase 4 wire 600 volt

Buy:
AG65033/ Type 1 Type 2
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual

High leg DeltaHigh leg delta   120-240 High leg Delta
Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protection

Black Line to Black Line 240V

Black Line to Neutral 120V

Red Line to Neutral 208V

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta

Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
High leg delta
Larger image

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta

Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2 surge protector for high leg delta

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
How to wire 3-phase
How to install 3-phase timer
What is 3-phase
120 240 high leg delta
Use Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protector

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta

Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
347 600 3 phase wye
Use Intermatic AG65033 surge protector

3 phase 4 wire 600 volt

Buy:
AG65033/ Type 1 Type 2
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual
240 Delta 3-phase
Use Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protector

3-phase 4-wire 240

Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
277 480 single phase
Use Intermatic AG48013 Surge protector

Single phase 277-480V

Buy:
AG48013 Type 1 Type

Resources:
Single phase 277-480 / 480-480 volt surge manual/ pdf

Electricity leaves power plant Resource:
What is 3-phase electric: power plant to end user
See inside main breaker box

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Gas and electric water heatersBuy
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