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How to wire Whole-house surge protector
Surge protection overview
Surge protectors wear out: Surge protectors are constantly in use.
There are 3 types of surge:
Disruptive
enters electronics and causes malfunction of logic and lock up.
Dissipative
is repetitive, pulsing short-duration causing early demise of equipment.
Destructive
is high level energy that causes immediate failure of equipment.
Surge protectors are constantly in use. They wear out.
Surge protection will protect:
-protect from most but not all nearby lightning strikes beyond 100'... both in the air and ground strikes.
-protect from most line surges caused by power-company transformer variations
-protect from most line surges caused by lightning hitting power grid nearby... local transformer has a fuse/ lightning arrestor that trips open but surge can still jump to nearby wires.
-protect from surge caused by power resumption after outage.
Surge protection will NOT protect:
-from lightning strikes within 100' : install lightning rod: Connect all ground wires and ground rods into single array to help deflect surge and protect circuit breakers.
-from energized wires that exceeding surge rating
-brownout or low voltage : install phase monitor
-might not protect home devices from repetitive overvoltage generated by equipment, such as table saw or defective motor etc. Light switches, motors, and furnace igniter can be surge generators : check surge protection for periodic replacement
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Difference between: surge, brownout, ground fault, line noise
Surge: too many electrons going down the wire: Cause: grid malfunctions, motors, lightning etc. Result: motors, electronics, machines, timers, appliances, etc can stop functioning or burn out. Solution: install surge protector covered on this page.
Brownout: are too few electrons on the wire: Undervoltage for ordinary home is generally anything less than 85% rated voltage. Result: light bulbs dim, electronics stop functioning until normal power resumes, motors slow down and overheat. To protect motors and HVAC from brownout, turn off power. Install phase monitor   Also read about compressor defender
Phase fluctions: too few or too many electrons on one wire and not the other wire(s). Result is unbalanced voltage that causes motors, pumps and HVAC to slow down and overheat and burn out. To protect motors and HVAC. Install phase monitor
Ground fault: electrons rushing uncontrollably to ground. Also called a short. Will cause circuit breaker to trip. High risk of electrocution if your body is the pathway that electrons follow. Ground wire required for all electric installations. Why you need ground wire. GFCI will react instantly to ground fault, much faster than circuit breaker. Install GFCI breakers and outlets for more dangerous areas: bathroom, kitchen, laundry, outdoors etc. Read more about GFCI
Line Noise: electrons behaving erratically instead of flowing predictably: Surge protection is not made to filter line noise... unless specified.
Result: Line noise effects devices and processes that require 'clean' electric power. Microprocessor manufacturing requires very clean electric power.  Line filters reduce high-frequency line noise broadcast onto household wires caused by using photocopier, arc welder, light dimmer. 
Modern electronic devices have filters, but some don't. For example, some digital timers might not have a filter. Line noise will scramble timer programming, while voltage surge can completely destroy timer functionality. Press and hold reset button to see if function returns.
Buy from my affiliate links:
Line noise filter
Electrical footnotes:
-Multiple surge protectors on one line or in multiple locations are beneficial, and will protect better as distance increase... because surge, such as lightning, can enter wires anywhere.
-Multiple circuit breakers and fuses on one line or in multiple locations will protect electric system.
-All devices must be grounded, and all grounds bonded together into a single array to help absorb surge, protect from electrocution, and assist circuit breaker life expectancy. This includes ground wires for electric, TV satellite dish, TV cable, internet-telephone service, etc.
-Multiple GFCI on one line will cause tripping and malfunction.
Surge protection
Larger image
Description of different types varies by resource
Type 1
is generally a permanently connected, or permanently hard wired SPD (surge protection device) that can be installed anywhere on Line side of service panel (breaker box), also called the service entrance or transformer secondary, located between transformer and main breaker box.

Type 1-2 means the device is rated Type 1 or Type 2 and can be installed anywhere from the distribution transformer to breaker box to HVAC equipment or at detached barn or garage.
Type 1-2 can also be installed anywhere on line side or load side of service panel including at equipment location, for example at HVAC etc.

Type 2 is installed at or inside the service panel or main breaker box or installed at the equipment location, for example at HVAC disconnect etc. Type 2 is usually connected to overcurrent protection (circuit breaker) depending on listing..., read instruction manual for device to see if overcurrent protection is required.

Type 3 is used in addition to Type 1 or 2 protection, especially when location is farther than 50 feet away from main surge protection to assist overall surge protection.
Type 3 is typically surge receptacles or cord connected point-of-use devices such as surge outlet or surge protection strip or surge suppressor at your computer or electronic water heater. Type 3 is a surge arrestor and is connected to ground wire and not to overcurrent protection.

Surge Protector vrs Surge arrestor
Surge protector or suppressor will clamp the surge... or absorb ... or dampen the surge.  
Surge arrestor will redirect high energy to ground wire. Also called jumping the gap to ground.

Resources
Surge protection .pdf
Surge protection devices .pdf
Why use surge protection/ pdf
How to wire disconnects /safety switches
Why you need ground
Surge protection devices
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge
120-240V
Install at service panel or branch panel
Type 2 surge suppressor
Whole house surge will protect all 120Volt and 240Volt microwave, dishwasher, water heater, dryer, washing machine, water heater, timer,  breaker, wire etc.
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors
Intermatic Type 2 residential breaker box
Intermatic lower cost residential

Resource:
Intermatic IG1240RC3 .pdf
Intermatic IG1240RC3
Whole house surge
120-240V
Install at service panel or branch panel
Type 2 surge suppressor

Applies to all surge: Install as close to breaker as possible, Keep wires straight, no sharp angles, use sweeping bends, do not wrap extra wire, cut to length
Buy:
Leviton residential surge protector

Resources:
Leviton 5120-1 whole house surge protector/ pdf
surge protector
Best seller
Residential whole house. Type 2
Install at service panel or branch panel
Connect to breaker
12 gauge wire
120-240Vac
Nema 4X indoor-outdoor harsh environment.
Buy
Square D / HEPD80 at Amazon

Resource:
HEPD surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
Intermatic AG3000
With $7500 warranty
Larger image
120-240 Vac with brown-out protection.
Home or commercial $7500 connected warranty/ includes electronic components.
Type 1 and type 2 with 36" long, 10 gauge wire
Nema 4X indoor-outdoor harsh environment.
Buy:
AG3000 universal surge protection
PS3000 surge protector
Pool and spa surge protection
Resources:
AG3000 Surge protection manual
PS3000 surge protection manual
$7500 warranty/ pdf
Read about compressor defender
secondary surge arrestor
Secondary surge arrestor. Type 1
120-240V 150 VAC
Indoor/ outdoor can be located anywhere on electrical system
Type 1 surge arrestor 25,000 amp
Use for pumps, motors, service entrance
Locations more than 90' from service
Nema 4X harsh environment

Arrestor: when energy is large enough, it jumps the gap to ground or earth
Buy:
Square D secondary SDSA1175 3-wire

Resource:
SDSA1175 .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
Homeline surge protector
120-240V
Type 2
500V clamping/ 27,000 amps
Install in breaker box, directly on busbar in place of a circuit breaker
Connect white wire to neutral busbar
Buy:
Square D push-on type residential surge protector at Amazon

Resource:
Plug on surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf

120-240V
Type 2
Install in breaker box, directly on busbar in place of a circuit breaker
Connect white wire to neutral busbar.
Buy:
HOM2175SB at Amazon
Whole house surge protectors
Siemens secondary surge protector and circuit breaker
QO type surge at Amazon

Snap-on breaker use Homeline QO2175SB for square D QO-type panels
Resource:
Plug on surge protection .pdf
Dimensions, mounting, wiring/ pdf
Intermatic surge protection
 Type 1 or Type 2, Nema4X rainproof.
Simple install vertical or horizontal etc
36" leads/ 12 gauge wire/ Cut to correct length, do not coil or wrap extra wire, avoid 90 degree bends, min 4" radius on bends, keep wires straight
Do not wrap extra wire. Cut to size.
Buy:
AG24013 Type 1 Type 2

Resource
AG series sell sheet/ pdf

co-ax surge protector
Co-ax surge
Type 3 surge protection
Connect to ground surge protectors
Redirects surge to ground rod
Arrestor: when energy is large enough, it jumps the gap to ground or earth.

Buy:    
Ethernet surge protector
Broadband cable lightning surge
Co-ax surge protector
Type 3 surge protection
Coax surge
Combine 4 telephone, 2 coax surge

Resources:
IG1300-surge /pdf

Buy:
24 Volt DC surge protector
Wall outlet surge protector   Outlet polarity
Image of back
Wall outlet surge suppression/ Type 3, redirects surge to ground wire. 120 volt point-of-use for electronics, gas water heaters/ tankless, microwave, machine tool, copier, cell phone charger etc. Indoor application. Meets standard for damper-type water heaters that plug into outlet.
Type 3/ Two surge-suppression outlets protects against voltage surge/
Single-event protection requires replacement.
Hot, neutral and ground wire needed/ can replace any ordinary outlet.
Buy:
15 amp surge suppressor receptacle
Leviton J-box surge protection kit
15 amp duplex surge protector
20 amp commercial surge protector
Resources
Surge protection sell sheet
Outlet surge suppression manual
Surge protection outlet manual
Guaranteed protection  ... backed by money from Intermatic
Intermatic compressor defender
$25,000 warranty/ 10 year
Intermatic compressor defender protects brown-out and surge.
Type 1 Type 2 single phase / / Nema 4X harsh environment
Surge protection PLUS brownout protection . In event of low voltage, the defender protects machinery and HVAC motors that can overheat when voltage is reduced by brownout.
Residential + light commercial
Buy:
Compressor defender at Amazon
Resources:
Read about compressor defender
Install video
Intermatic surge protection module
$25,000 warranty/ 10 year
Larger image    Another image
Intermatic modular surge protection/ replace module instead of hardwiring another device after surge event. Modules snap into place.
Type 1 Type 2 single phase / / Nema 4X harsh environment

No need for rewiring when surge is replaced > turn off circuit breaker > insert new module > turn on circuit breaker > job is done, and protection is guaranteed.
Buy
Whole house type 1 2 surge protection with 10 year warranty
Replacement module for type 1 and 2 with 1 year warranty

Resources:
Installation video
Sell sheet
Manual with wiring/ 10 gauge wire

Type 1 surge protection wiring
Type 1 surge protection wiring Type 1 surge protection is connected directly to the Hot and Neutral wires, and not to circuit breaker or ground wire.
Type 1-2 surge device can be connected to circuit breaker, or wired as shown.

Device must be connected to Hot and Neutral.

Buy
Type 1 surge protector
Square D SDSA1175 3-wire

Type 2 Hardwire installation
Rules for installing Type 2 surge protector
-Should be connected to breaker located in two slots nearest to main breaker. So surge enters protector before entering other breakers.
-One surge protector should be installed in each breaker box. Surge can arrive at any breaker box independently. Electricity does unusual things.
-Ratings for surge protection varies by amount of power each will absorb... generally cheaper one will absorb less surge
Always install surge as close as possible to sensitive equipment. Do not expect surge protector inside house to protect equipment more than 90 feet away.
For equipment located more than 90 feet away... add dedicated surge.
Whole house surge Type 2 hardwired surge protector
Surge protector is single-use and must be replaced after surge event such as lightning strike.
Indicator light shows when surge is working.
NO Indicator light, then replacement is required.
Each surge is rated to protect residential panel 120V and 240V.
Shorter wires provide better protection
No protection for equipment located more than 90 feet away.
Install dedicated surge for equipment more than 90 feet away
Photoeye and devices outside home are less protected or not protected
Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Intermatic Type 2 residential
Intermatic lower cost residential
Leviton residential
Siemens has circuit breaker and surge requires 3 slots
Siemens circuit breaker and surge
Intermatic Type 2: Connect surge protector to 20 amp breaker located on two slots nearest main breaker
Wires connected to main breaker are HOT at all times even when all breakers are off
Instructions for wiring
Install as close to main breaker as possible. Connect to 20 amp double-pole breaker. Connect to Neutral and ground. Connect both black wires from surge to 20 amp circuit breaker.
Connect white to neutral busbar.
Connect green to ground busbar.

Whole house surge will protect both sides of single-phase (aka split phase) service panel.
Surge protector is single-use and must be replaced after surge event such as lightning strike.

Indicator light/ brief troubleshoot
Green indicator light shows when protection is ON.
If indicator is OFF, then check if unit is receiving 240Volts.

If one leg of breaker is tripped, then phase power is not ON, and indicator light will not light up.
Reset breaker fully off and then back on.
If phase power is good, and indicator is off, then surge has exceeded device rating. Replace surge protector.

Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Intermatic Type 1-2 residential
Intermatic lower cost residential
All Intermatic surge protection
All Leviton surge protectors
Leviton whole house surge protector Leviton Type 2: Connect surge protector to 20 amp double-pole breaker

Wiring in subpanel and main breaker box are same. Note no main breaker shown.
Suggest the wires from surge protector should enter panel on side, or travel down to bottom of panel and then back up other side. Do not run wires above main breaker. Wiring shown is for subpanel,.

Must be connected on breaker as close to the top of panel as possible..
Both black wires connect to circuit breaker.
White to neutral.
Green to ground.

Indicator light
Green indicator light shows when protection is ON.
If indicator is OFF, then check if unit is receiving 240Volts.
If phase power is good, and indicator is off, then surge has exceeded device rating. Replace surge protector.

Buy:
Whole house surge protectors at Amazon
Leviton residential
All Leviton surge protectors
Intermatic Type 1-2 residential
Intermatic lower cost residential
Type 2 Breaker installation
Homeline surge protector Type 2 surge protection breaker snaps directly ointo bubar over 2 breaker spaces.
Connect White wire to Neutral busbar
Must be replaced after surge event

Disadvantages of breaker type surge protector: Must be same brand as breaker box,  must open panel door to see indicator light. must enter main panel to replace after surge event.
Advantage: Simple installation without much wiring, no conduit or external box.

Protects circuit breaker panel/ Protects 120V and 240V circuits/ Protects 120-240Volt appliance or water heater with electronics.
Does not protect TV connected to satellite dish or phone line
For TVs use surge Type 3 protector

Buy:
Type 2 surge protector
Square D push-on type residential surge protector at Amazon
For snap-on breaker use Homeline QO2175SB for square D QO-type panels
Resources:
See example push-on breaker
Type 3: hardwire and in-line
Intermatic IG1300 Phone line and co-ax surge protector

Intermatic IG1300 Type 2, surge for coax and phone line protection
Phone and co-ax lines are very susceptible to surge from nearby lightning strike or broadcast surge from other causes.

In-line co-ax surge protectors are Type 3 and connected to ground wire instead of directly to circuit breaker. Type 3 are not as effective as Type 2 surge for protecting expensive audio, TV, computer and phone equipment.
Often the ground rod for co-ax and phone line is not driven deep enough to reach damp soil and support grounding in all circumstances. Moreover separate ground rods for phone and co-ax are often not bonded with all other ground to create a grounding array for maximum protection.

Use in areas prone to lightning or where phone and co-ax lines connect to valuable equipment.

Buy:
Combined 4 telephone, 2 coax surge

Resources:
IG1300-surge /pdf
surge vs ground block Co-Ax
Surge and ground block are two different things
Each is for co-ax cable. Ground block is a grounding point and does not give surge protection directly but assists other surge devices on the co-ax line by providing ground point, or additional ground point.
Not shown is bonding with other ground rods to form a ground array for maximum protection against lightning.
Buy:    
Ethernet surge protector
Broadband cable lightning surge
Co-ax surge protector
Type 3 surge protection
Coax surge
Combine 4 telephone, 2 coax surge
Resource
Difference between ground and surge
Type 3 surge Type 3 surge protector for phone
Type 2 urge must be able to jump the gap to ground, so all Type 3 must be connected to ground wire.
Example surge protection strip with multiple plugs, etc.

Buy:
Surge protector for phone line

main breaker box
Larger image
Ordinary Main panel for home with 120 volt and 240 volt circuits.
This is called single-phase electric power. Voltage and Phasing is determined by the power company transformer installation.

- Each 120 volt circuit usually supplies power to lights and outlets in one area of home. Wires leave breaker box and go to first junction box where the wires split off and go to each individual box, jumping from box to box until the final box is reached. Max 12 boxes per circuit.

- Each 240 volt circuit is usually dedicated to one appliance. For example electric water heater is connected to one 240 volt breaker, electric dryer is connected to another breaker, and heat/AC is connected to another 240 volt circuit breaker, etc.
Resources:
See inside main breaker box
Basic household wiring
How to replace circuit breaker
How to install subpanel
Figure volts amps watts for electric water heater

Commercial 3-phase surge protection
What is 3-phase electric
Cut wire to correct length, do not coil or wrap extra lead wire, avoid 90 degree bends, 4' radius on bends, keep wires straight as possible.
Keep wires as straight as possible. Use long sweep turns
Intermatic surge protection Intermatic 3-phase
Choice of voltages 120-600 VAC
Nema4X rainproof enclosure
Type 1 or Type 2 installation, 1 year warranty
Install vertical or horizontal etc
36" leads/ 12 gauge wire/

Buy:
3-phase surge protection
All Intermatic surge protection

Resource
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
Intermatic surge protection Leviton 3-phase
Choice of voltages 120-600 VAC
Nema4X rainproof enclosure
Type 1 or Type 2 installation, 1 year warranty
Install vertical or horizontal etc
36" leads/ 12 gauge wire/

Buy:
3-phase surge protection
All Leviton surge protectors

Resource
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt
Buy:
Intermatic 120-208 Type 1 Type 2/
Leviton 120-208 3-phase panel protector

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208V manual
3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt
Buy:
Intermatic 277-480 Type 1 Type 2
Eeaton 277-480 volt

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
3 phase 4 wire 600 volt
Buy:
AG65033/
Intermatic 600 volt Type 1Type 2
Square D 600 volt

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual
3 phase 4 wire 277-480 volt
220-380 volt
Buy:
Leviton 277-480/ 220-380 panel protector

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta
Buy:
Intermatic High leg delta Type 1 Type 2
Leviton High leg delta

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
120 240 single phase 120 volt single phase Split phase means ordinary Household 120V-240V service.
Single phase means 120V service.
Most people call 120V-240V service single phase.

Most commercial 3-phase installations have single-phase for lights and plugs. Single-phase is a derivative of 3 phase.

Single phase 120-240V Volt
Buy:
AG24013 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
Single phase 120-240 volt surge manual


277 480 3-phase WYE
Use Intermatic AG4803CE surge protector
3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt
Buy:
AG4803C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
480 3 phase delta
Use Intermatic AG4803C3 surge protector
3-phase 4-wire 277-480 volt
Buy:
AG4803C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
AG series sell sheet/ pdf
120 208 3-phase wye
Use Intermatic AG2083C3 surge protector
3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt
Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual
120 208V 3-phase wye
Intermatic AG208C3 Surge


3 phase 4 wire 208-120 volt
Buy:
AG2083C3 Type 1 Type 2/

Resource:
3 phase 120V-208V / 208-208 volt surge protection manual
347 600V three phase wye
Intermatic AG65033 Surge Protection


3 phase 4 wire 600 volt
Buy:
AG65033/ Type 1 Type 2
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual

High leg DeltaHigh leg delta   120-240 High leg Delta
Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protection

Black Line to Black Line 240V

Black Line to Neutral 120V

Red Line to Neutral 208V

3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta
Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
High leg delta
Larger image
3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta
Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2 surge protector for high leg delta

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
How to wire 3-phase
How to install 3-phase timer
What is 3-phase
120 240 high leg delta
Use Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protector
3-phase 4-wire 120-208-240 4-wire High leg delta
Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
347 600 3 phase wye
Use Intermatic AG65033 surge protector
3 phase 4 wire 600 volt
Buy:
AG65033/ Type 1 Type 2
AG6503C3/ Type 1Type 2

Resources:
3 phase 277V 480V surge protection manual
240 Delta 3-phase
Use Intermatic AG2403C3 surge protector
3-phase 4-wire 240
Buy:
AG2403C3 Type 1 Type 2

Resources:
3 phase high leg delta surge protection manual
277 480 single phase
Use Intermatic AG48013 Surge protector
Single phase 277-480V
Buy:
AG48013 Type 1 Type

Resources:
Single phase 277-480 / 480-480 volt surge manual/ pdf

Electricity leaves power plant Electricity:
The grid is defined by three parts: transmission, distribution and end user. The following links show how it works
Resources:
Power plant to end user power pole
Power pole to residential breaker box
Power pole to commercial breaker box

How to wire residential electric
How to wire commercial 3-phase
Gas and electric water heaters Support the economy:
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