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What is difference between surge protection and ground?

Difference between GFCI and Ground
Difference between neutral and ground
surge vs ground block Generally all types surge protectors must be grounded. But not all grounding is surge protection.
A ground wire will NOT protect equipment from overvoltage .... unless the power exceeds device or wire rating, or causes failure so that electricity arcs to the box and follows ground wire to ground rod.
Surge protection is needed to protect equipment from overvoltage.
For example motors will cause voltage spikes etc that can harm other appliances.
Surge protection suppresses or absorbs overvoltage and anomalies in electric power. In some cases, the overvoltage is redirected to the ground wire, so the ground wire is a necessary part of surge protection.

100' feet away for lighting is the rule of thumb.
Anything closer than 100', and nothing can protect against the voltage.
Beyond 100' and proper grounding can help redirect the surge into the ground.
Proper grounding requires all boxes and devices to be connected with a ground wire that is adequately connected to a ground rod that is at sufficient depth to reach permanently damp soil, or an array of ground rods with sufficient low resistance to meet local code, and that all grounds rods are bonded together with a common wire. For example if you have a ground rod for satellite TV and separate ground rod for electricity, they should be connected with a common ground wire of bare copper or green-coated copper wire.
However the ground wire will not protect electronics etc from damage from lightning ... for this you need a surge protector, suppressor, arrestor ... and possibly a lightning arrestor ... and generally, the surge protection needs to be grounded.
Note: surge protection wears out over time ... because it is consumed by the continuous small and large surge that is typical with electric wire and devices.

Resources:
Why you need ground wire
How to wire whole house surge
Electricity from grid to main breaker panel
Electricity from generator to residence
Color code for wire
Bond solar panel to ground rod

Ground wire

All phone, satellite, pool equipment, solar systems and electric panels must be grounded. Check local electric codes.
What does this mean? Drive ground rod 8-10 feet into soil. Bond #6-8 bare copper wire to ground rod and to solar panels and pipes on roof.
Do NOT ground electric system to water pipes. Ground must be connected to ground rod. Stray current corrosion can cause pipes to deteriorate. Uncertain bond to ground because of plastic pipes.

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Ground rod and clamps at Amazon
Bonding lugs

Bond all ground wires together to help prevent surge & lightning damages

Surge protection generally needs to be grounded, and will benefit from bonding all grounds.
Bonding all grounds together will help prevent damage from lightning strikes beyond 100' away...
Strong lightning strikes within 100 feet must be handled by lightning rod
Local code requires bonding: this includes all ground rods for satellite, TV, phone, solar, electric panel, subpanels (within 100 feet) etc must be connected together and bonded to main electric panel ground rod driven into soil at correct depth to meet local code. Consult local electrician.
Codes for grounding depth vary: loose rocky dry soils are less conductive than dense wet soils
No system other than lightning rods will protect against direct lightning strike or strike within 100 feet.
Move indoors and do not stay on roof, or move metal ladders, or touch anything made of metal when lightning is within 1 mile or can be heard or seen.
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Copper ground wire
Use same size as other wire in circuit

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