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2014

How to install a subpanel



Buy indoor/ outdoor:
70 amp 2-space
Subpanels at Amazon


Buy indoor/ outdoor:
60 amp 2-space
Subpanels at Amazon


Buy indoor/ outdoor:
125 amp 8-space
Subpanels at Amazon

Buy indoor:
125 amp 8-space
125 amp 8-space
Subpanels at Amazon


Buy indoor:
125 amp 8-space
Subpanels at Amazon
Intermatic T30000R5
Subpanels with space for breakers, timer, switch, outlet
Buy indoor/ outdoor:
60-125 amp 4-8-spaces
Installing subpanel
See larger

60 amp Subpanel / with 240Volt  and 120Volt

Use with both 240Volt and 120Volt breakers
1) 60-150 Amp breaker replaces any 240 breaker in main box near top of box

2) Two Hot wires connect to 60-150 Amp breaker in main breaker box. Either hot wire can connect to either hot busbar inside subpanel.

3) Neutral connects to Neutral busbar so subpanel can power 120 and 240 breakers.

4) Ground wire connects to Ground busbar. Ground busbar can be purchased separately.

If Subpanel located at another structure, for example  garage several hundred feet away, might be cheaper to use ground rod located outside other structure. If structure is farther than 140', then wire gauge increases from #6 to #4. Consult local electrician for correct gauge.

Resources:
See wire size chart
Electrical formulas
Main lug wiring

Main breaker wires are HOT when main breaker is OFF

Main breaker wires are HOT when main breaker is OFF unless meter is pulled
How to pull meter
Install subpanel for Tankless electric
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150 amp subpanel/ with 240Volt and 120Volt

150 amp breaker uses #1 wire

Neutral wire needed only if subpanel has 120Volt breakers/ Ground wire required for all installations

If panel will not have 120Volt circuits, then neutral wire not needed.
Separate ground busbar not needed since ground wires can connect to neutral busbar

Resource:
Subpanel shown here is for installing while-house tankless electric water heater
How to wire Tankless water heater
240 volt subpanel

240 Volt subpanel does not need Neutral wire

Neutral wire needed for 120Volt breakers, but not 240Volt

2 Hot wires arrive from breaker, and connect to Hot lugs
This will energize both hot busbars
Connect ground wire to silver busbar.

Wires going to Load connect to 240Volt breakers
When connecting ground wires to ground busbar, keep wires along edge of box.

Wires cannot be over the top of breakers or busbars

Wires cannot lay over the breakers or busbars.
Wires can lay over top of other wires, but not at point where wires connect to busbars.
Lay all wires to sides of box
240Volt GFCI

Neutral wire needed in 240Volt subpanel when installing 2-pole GFCI breaker

240V GFCI has white wire. This wire must be connected to neutral busbar
Wires going to Load connect to breaker in usual way, except there are 3 connection screws on 240 Volt GFCI
Connect neutral going to Load to center screw on breaker... if Load has neutral wire available
Connect Hot leads going to Load to other two screws on breaker (either wire to either screw)
General rule/ Load neutral not required: The Load Neutral does not have to be connected to center pole on breaker.

Resources:
Wiring-GFCI.pdf
How to wire GFCI
120 volt main lug subpanel

120Volt subpanel illustration/ Do not run jumper wire between busbars... install jumper over top of neutral busbar

1 Hot wire arrives from breaker
Add jumper wire between Hot lugs
This will energize both hot busbars so each breaker slot will work.

Separate ground bar must be installed so Neutrals and grounds are separate

Buy:
Terminal ground bar at Amazon
Ground bar with attachment screws
Resource:
How to change 120 volt subpanel into 240 volt subpanel
Terminal ground bar

Install separate ground bar

Main lugs and subpanel etc often do not have separate ground bar.
Good electric practice requires separate busbars for ground wires and neutral wires.
Install ground bar
If subpanel is 240volt then separate ground busbar not needed. And ground wires can attach to busbar where neutral wires attach
Buy:
Terminal ground bar at Amazon
Ground bar with attachment screws
Ground bars at Amazon

Larger image


Put electric meter on Subpanel


Resource:
New and used electric meters
How to install electric meter on water heater
How to get electric service
Wires connect to subpanel
Larger image  

Square D 60 amp/ 6-space/ Subpanel with 6 gauge wire

Replace any 240V breaker with new breaker
Or remove two 120V breakers to make room for new breaker.

Normally, each 240V breaker serves 1 appliance.
For example stove has 240V breaker. Water heater has separate 240V breaker. Air conditioner another 240V breaker.
240V appliances cannot be 'doubled-up' on a single 240 breaker. Each needs separate breaker.
If there are no extra slots in breaker box, add a Tandem breaker. Also you can double-up two lightly used 120Volt circuits.

Buy:
Terminal ground bar at Amazon
Main lugs (subpanels) at Amazon

Resource:
How to replace circuit breaker
wire size chart

Wire size chart for distances up to 50 feet

Resources:
See rating chart with more sizes
Rating chart with temperature, long length

Select correct breaker and wire size
Wire diameter, weight, resistance



Wire color

Black-black or Red-black is preferred for Hot wires

White wire should be used for neutral wire only.
If white wire carries power, then wrap black tape around wire to indicate that it carries voltage, and is not a neutral wire.

Green or bare copper for ground.
Green or bare copper for ground can never be used to carry voltage

Load center subpanel

Choosing subpanel /or main lug

Consider:
Amp rating of panel
Number of breaker spaces
With Door / No door
Weathertight or indoor (example shows indoor panel)

Availability of breakers:
Square D uses Square D breakers, etc
Siemens uses siemens breakers

Buy:
Main lugs at Amazon
Siemens 125 amp/ 8 space at Amazon
Siemens 125 amp/ 12 space at Amazon
100 amp 6 space
100 amp 8 space
Siemens use BR type Push-down breaker

Terminal ground bar at Amazon
Copper ground rod
Ground rod clamp
See larger

Example subpanel with 6 breaker slots



See larger
Subpanel with 6 slots.
This panel accommodates three 240Volt breakers
-or- six 120Volt breakers

Resources:
See amp - wire rating chart
Color-code for household wires

Subpanels available with or without timer(s)
4-8 spaces to mount circuit breakers
2-5 spaces to mount switches and GFCI outlets

Outdoor Subpanels with timers

Can be used for any subpanel purpose located outdoor
Subpanels available with or without timer(s)


Control centers and parts




Digital control centers and I-wave




Freeze control centers and parts
Intermatic control center wiring
            120Volt                 240Volt              120-240Volt    
How to wire Intermatic control center breaker busbar
Electric box knock out
Larger image

Subpanel illustrations


Buy tapered drill/ step drill bit for any size hole
Step drill bits at Amazon
Neiko tapered drill bit 1/4"-1-3/8 holes


tapered drill bit


Photo shows typical residential breaker-types

Example circuit breakers

Tandem circuit breakers give 2 separate circuits for 1 slot
This is not 240V, tandem is for two-120Volt circuits

Single-pole 20 amp breakers
Double-pole 208-240Volt breakers
Circuit breaker
Push-down type breaker

Attach wires very tight

Only copper wire under screw
No wire insulation under screw

Double-pole breakers

Double-pole 208-240Volt breakers must have connected switches so both legs are turned on-off at same time.
It is not code to use two separate single-pole breakers for 208-240 volt circuits

How to install 1" wide push-down breaker

Push-down breaker
Notch on breaker sits against rail or cleat
Rotate breaker down to busbar
Push breaker down over vertical busbar

BR type 1" wide breakers are usually used for residential applications
Available local box store
Buy circuit breakers:
Siemens circuit breakers at Amazon

Larger image

Install 1" wide hook-on breaker

Hook on breaker
Either hooks or snaps over round rod
Rotate breaker down to busbar
Snap breaker down over bar

Instructions for replacing circuit breaker
: Turn off electricity > > remove wire from breaker > pull old breaker off busbar > grab switch and rock breaker back-forth > if needed, use screwdriver between breakers to gently pry up breaker > rotate out > remove other end of breaker off cleat or bar or metal rod > buy matching brand breaker > check busbar for damage > install new breaker onto cleat or bar > rotate breaker down to busbar > push new breaker firmly onto busbar > re-attach wire > tighten screw very tight against copper wire

Resource:
How to replace circuit breaker

main breaker box
Larger image

Review basic 120Volt and 240Volt

Ordinary Main panel for home has 120 volt and 240 volt circuits.
This is called single-phase electric power. Phasing is determined by the power company.

-Each 120 volt circuit can include up to 12 outlets, and supply power to lights inside a room.
- Generally each 120 volt circuit sends power to one area of home. The Hot and neutral and ground wires leave breaker box and travel to first junction box inside a room. From junction box, the wires split off and travel to each individual box, jumping from box to box until the final box is reached. So each box will have 1 black hot wire, 1 white neutral wire, and 1 ground wire that connect back to main breaker box.
- Some circuit breakers are dedicated to 1 specific appliance. For example the kitchen microwave is usually wired to 1 circuit breaker and no other outlets or lights are connected to that breaker. This is because microwave draws so much amperage. That is called dedicated circuit, and dedicated breaker.

- Each 240 volt circuit is usually dedicated to one appliance. For example electric water heater is connected to 1 240 volt breaker. The electric dryer is connected to another 240 volt breaker. The heat/AC is connected to another 240 volt circuit breaker, and so on.

Resources:
See inside main breaker box
How to replace circuit breaker
Basic water heater circuit
Figure volts amps watts for electric water heater
Main breaker box

Difference between 120V and 240V

All residential circuits require Two wires to complete circuit.
      120Volt circuit requires 1 Neutral wire and 1 Hot wire.
Hot wire can come from either Hot busbar.
By Code, these wires are Black-Hot and White-Neutral.
If either wire is interrupted, the circuit turns OFF.
By code the Black Hot wire is switched ON-and-OFF.

     240Volt circuit also requires 2 wires to complete circuit.
In the case of 240V, the circuit requires 2 Hot wires.
One Hot wire from each 'out of phase' busbar is required to complete 240Volt circuit.
These wires can be Black and White or Black and Red, and with heavier gauge wires, like 6 gauge and 4 gauge, the wires are Black and Black.
If either wire in 240V circuit is interrupted, the circuit turns OFF.
See 30 amp switch turning off water heater
Bare ground wire connects to Neutral busbar as redundant safety.
240 volt water heater circuit
Basic water heater circuit

Additional links
Electricity leaves power plant What is 3-phase electric: power plant to end user

Troubleshoot Household electricity

Figure volts amps watts for electric water heater
How to wire tankless electric
How to change water heater temperature using timer
How to change water heater from 240Volt to 120Volt
How to wire thermostats
How to wire water heater for off peak operation

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How to wire Cooper 277
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Terminals
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Install subpanel

Electrical formulas
Electricians forum
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Basic water heater circuit
How to wire water heater for 120Volt
Install old work box

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Romex connector

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What is 3-phase

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How to wire under-counter water heater

See inside main breaker box
Fuseholder
Contactors
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Whole house surge protector
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Difference between 50Hz and 60Hz
How to install electric meter on water heater
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Intermatic timer enclosures



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Cutler Hammer C25BUB230A
Contactors

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3-phase timer

FVIR flammable vapor

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Telephone Rheem
Do it yourself and save

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Raise TP lever
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Gas and electric water heaters Support the economy:
Buy water heaters  from my associate links:

50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters at Amazon
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40 gallon electric water heaters at Amazon
Hybrid / heat pump/ water heaters at Amazon

Resources:
How to install gas water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater
box timers Compare box timers

Control water heater w/ Z-wave
Intermatic control centers Control centers:
+ manuals and parts


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Including Z-wave
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Control water heater with countdown timer
Low voltage power packs Low voltage transformers

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