wire water heater thermostat
Buy 36" drill bit
New wire in foam tank
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Replace water heater element

How to wire GFCI
Figure Volts Amps Watts for water heater 9 ways to save with water heater
How to install point of use water heater Point of use water heater
Compare 16 electric and 3 gas water heater timers How to wire off-peak water heater Troubleshoot Rheem tankless
Emergency steps: how to turn off water heater
How to install recirculation system Point of use water heater
Flooded water heate Leaking water heater Box timers
Auto-off timers
Programmable timers
Low water pressure How to set timers

How to wire 3-phase timer
Troubleshoot electric water heater Troubleshoot gas water heater How to wire tankless electric How to wire subpanel Do-it-yourself
2014

How to test water heater wires

Do not touch electric water heater that is wet. Turn Power OFF.

Multimeters at Amazon
Set multimeter to read ohms

How to test continuity of wire:

When burned wire is discovered/ or bad wire is suspect
Power is OFF
Set multimeter to read ohms.
Disconnect wires from each tank part. For example disconnect wire from thermostat and disconnect other end of wire from element.
Test #1: Put tester leads on both ends of wire.
If test reads ohms, then wire is good.
Test #2: Test each end of wire to bare metal part of tank.
If test reads ohms, then wire is shorted and must be replaced.
Tanks with foam insulation may need to be replaced.

Test wire between water heater and breaker box.

Turn off breaker.
Remove wires from top of heater.
Re-test wires on tank.
Test wire from breaker with breaker off.
Test for continuity between each wire and each wire to ground. There should be no current flowing between any of the wires.
Read
Water heater cover
Larger image

Turn power OFF


Open covers on water heater

Remove insulation and plastic protectors
Foam insulation might need to be cut back

Power is OFF

Tighten all screws very tight against copper wire
Look for signs of high heat and burning.
Look for melted insulation on wires. Look for burned or blackened wires.
Use nose and smell for burning.
Test electricity
Turn power ON
Power is ON

Test for 240Volt across top two screws on upper thermostat

Turn Power OFF to conduct rest of tests

If tank is not receiving 240Volts, test electricity to water heater
Avoid electrocution/
Multimeter
Tape multimeter leads to wood
Stand on dry boards
Do not touch metal
Wear dry clothes
Do not touch wet water heater
Melted wire
Look for burned or melted wire
Replace part
Cut back wire
Test continuity of wire/ or replace wire

Inspection of water heater finds burned wire:

Power is OFF
Action:
Replace part that burned wire is connected to.
Test continuity of wire that has been burned.
Replace wire that has no continuity.

How to test element.
How to replace element
How to test thermostat. (it is easier to replace both thermostats)
How to replace thermostat
How to wire thermostats

Push on wire connectors

If wire is too short / use push-on wire connector

Do not use wire nuts inside water heater

Do not put stranded wire under screw plate... fire hazard from wires getting loose

Maximum 2 wires under screw plate
Buy:

Push on wire connectors Amazon
3 Port for 10-14 wire/ 50 pcs
6 port for 12-18 / 50 pcs
Lever nuts for stranded wire at Amazon

Check if wire insulation is under screw plate.

Loose wires cause high heat and fire
Only copper wire should be under screw plate.
Check that wires are tight.


Melted wire will pass continuity test.

If ECO keeps tripping, and thermostat is good,  and water is not overheated, then replace wires inside tank.
Breaker tripped, and now ECO is tripping:
Water heater had leak, and now ECO is tripping:
Quick answer: Replace thermostats and test elements
Inspect for burned parts and and loose wires: Replace burned part.

ECO trips when wire is partially melted due to short or electrical overheat.
Wire can no longer carry element wattage, causing heat that trips ECO.

This happens if water heater leak caused short. Or if circuit breaker tripped. Or if water heater had a fire. Replace wires.
New water heaters with foam insulation might require replacement.
wire water heater thermostat
This voids product warranty

How to change wiring on electric water heater / foam-insulated tank

If wire is bad/ replace wire
If tank has foam insulation, then replace tank
Drill hole and run new wire voids product warranty
Rewire foam insulated  tank
Foam insulation makes it impossible to change wiring.
Foam is pressurized and used to fill cavity between inner steel tank and outer tank shell
The foam fits very tight against wire so wires cannot be replaced.

Start with 3/8" standard drill bit to drill through steel top.
Then use 36" drill bit to drill through foam
Drill through top of tank near wiring cavities
Keep drill bit near outer edge of tank shell
Drill horizontially as needced to run wire into wiring cavities

Buy
36" drill bit
Water heater element

Wire size too small for element can cause melted parts.

Installed new element, and now ECO is tripping:
Quick answer: Replace thermostats and test elements
Inspect for burned parts and and loose wires: Replace burned part.

ECO trips when wire gauge is too small for element wattage, causing heat that trips ECO.
This happens if replacement element has greater wattage than shows on label on side of tank.
Compare rating label on side of tank with wattage rating printed on end of each element.
Select correct wire and breaker size

All brands of thermostats are interchangeable

New water heaters have high density elements. Low density elements can last longer
$48 for 2 low density 240 Volt 4500 watt elements/  + Upper and lower thermostat


Buy LOW density kit:
Apcom plumbers pack Amazon

Resource
How to replace elements
How to replace thermostats
How to wire thermostats

$35 for 2 high density 240 volt 4500 watt elements + Upper and lower thermostat

Apcom thermostats
Buy HIGH density kit:
Apcom plumbers pack Amazon

Resource
How to replace elements
$45 for 2 low density 240 Volt 4500 watt elements/+ Upper and lower thermostat

Therm-o-disc thermostats
Buy LOW density kit:
Therm-O-disc low density plumbers pack

Resource
How to replace elements
$45 for 2 high density 240 Volt 4500 watt elements/ + Upper and lower thermostat

Therm-o-disc thermostats
Buy HIGH density kit:
Therm-O-disc high density plumbers pack
Therm-O-disc high density

Resource
How to replace elements
wire nut assortment

Wire nut assortments

Do not reuse old wire nuts
Buy from my links

Wire nut assortment at Amazon
Wire nut assortment at Amazon
Weatherproof wire nut

Weatherproof wire nut

Wire nut cavity is full of silicone
Built-in cover keeps silicone in place
Protect from water, dust etc
Buy
Weatherproof size 14 to 6 Amazon
Weatherproof size 22 to 8 Amazon
Wire nut wrench

Wire nut wrench

Tighten wire nut
Buy from my associate links

Wire nut wrenches at Amazon
Push on wire connectors

Push-on wire connectors in place of wire nuts

Maximum 2 wires under screw plate Buy:
Push on wire connectors Amazon
3 Port for 10-14 wire/ 50 pcs
6 port for 12-18 / 50 pcs
Lever nuts for stranded wire at Amazon
add solder to stranded wire

Turn stranded wire into solid wire

Do not use stranded wire under screw plate
Add solder to 1" length of tightly twisted stranded wire to make into solid wire
Heat wire. Touch solder to wire. Let cool. File away over-solder.
Buy:
soldering guns
Resource

Timer caught fire

Non-contact voltage tester

Test for power without touching wire nuts
Tester beeps and flashes light
NEVER assume power is OFF
Buy:

Non-contact voltage tester Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon

Multimeter

Test for breaks in wire/ Test for voltage
Most appliances require 80% rated voltage to function correctly
Buy:
Multimeters at Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon

linesman pliers
Buy basic electric tools:
Wire strippers at Amazon
Linesman pliers
Utility knife at Amazon
End cutting nippers at Amazon
Treminals

Terminals

Crimp terminals onto stranded wire
Must solder terminals onto solid wire
Buy:
Terminal kit
Blue for 16-14 wire
Yellow for 12-10 wire
Read about terminals
Gas control valves Gas water heater wiring
How to troubleshoot gas water heater

Additional links

Troubleshoot gas water heater
Numbering on upper thermostats varies slightly
How to replace thermostats
Upper thermostats
See larger

How to install gas water heater

How to install gas water heater

9 ways to save with water heater
How to test elements

Electricity from pole to breaker box

See basic 120V and 240V water heater circuits

Compare all water heater timers
Do it yourself
Do it yourself water heater

How to twist wire

How to wire off-peak water heater
Cutler Hammer C25BUB230A
Contactors
Recirculation system
Hot water circulation system
Solar water heater
9+ ways to save with water heater

Motorized shut off valve

Anode rods

Clean sediment from tank
Low water pressure
Low water pressure


Stacking
Troubleshoot Rheem tankless

Troubleshoot Bosch tankless

How to install tank-type gas water heater

 EJ500 Utilitec Woods Woods ST01C  ST01C ETW350 Aube T1032Aube Intermatic EI500Intermatic
Sylvania Tork GE  Leviton Hagar Power pack
Timex

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Intermatic box timers:
Compare T100 series timers
How to set box timers
Troubleshoot box timers
Trippers and parts
Intermatic GM series
Intermatic parts
Intermatic trippers and parts
 Dayton Sprinkler timers Power pack
Wire T1906 and T1905 timers
  
Wire T-101 T103 T104 timers
Paragon timers and manuals
Tork TU universal timer
Westek box timers
Wire EH40 and WH40 timers
  
Tork timers and manuals
Tork TU universal timer
Troubleshoot intermatic
Sylvania timers

Leaking water heater
Intermatic GM series
Intermatic GM series
Pool timers and manuals
Intermatic T104P201
Wire GE 15207 timer
Intermatic EH10 timer
EH10 timer

GE box timers
Gardena timers
Gardena T1030

Anode rods

Cost to run water heater

Replace circuit breaker

Clean sediment from tank

Low hot water pressure

Compare all water heater timers
Recirculation system
Hot water circulation system
Gas and electric water heaters Support the economy:
Buy water heaters  from my associate links:

50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters at Amazon
50 gallon Electric water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon electric water heaters at Amazon
Hybrid / heat pump/ water heaters at Amazon

Resources:
How to install gas water heater
How to install electric water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater
Point of use water heaters
Gas and electric water heaters Industrial electric at Amazon

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Tools
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box timers Compare box timers

Control water heater w/ Z-wave
Intermatic control centers Control centers:
+ manuals and parts


All control centers and parts

Including Z-wave
programmable timer Compare programmable timers

Control water heater with programmable wall timer
Countdown timers Compare countdown timers

Control water heater with countdown timer
Low voltage power packs Low voltage transformers

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