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Which is Best Gas water heater

Water heater manufacturers
How to install gas water heater
All manufacturers make good heaters. There are three major manufacturers of residential water heaters: AO Smith, Bradford White and Rheem.
Each manufacturer makes different grades of product from 3 year to 6-9-12 year residential heaters to commercial grade and commercial grade for residential. Each manufacturer has folks that like-or-dislike their product.
This webpage offers specific things to consider when purchasing a water heater.

Which is best? Short answer:
A. If you have plumber install water heater: Choose the one he normally installs, and maintains.
-Avoid tankless recommendation for whole house: the $4-8 per year energy savings does not warrant additional cost of installation, and additional risk and expense of repair.
-Avoid heat pump and other computer-chip water heaters because savings is not proven for all installations, and regular maintenance might be required. All electronic water heaters are susceptible to surge, parts are proprietary, and best-case energy savings does not warrant additional risk and expense of repair.
-As general rule
, electronic water heaters cannot be repaired by homeowner and offer no proven savings long term for average family. Exception: Ordinary tank gas water heaters with electronic gas control valve thermostats can be diagnosed, and replaced DIY. Gas control valve troubleshoot Electronic gas valve have been standard with HVAC for many years,

B. If you install and maintain water heater yourself: then 6-12 year Whirlpool from Lowes, 6-9-12 year Kenmore from Sears are good choice. Both are made by AO Smith companies. Get store coupons if available.
DIY resource: How to install gas water heater
Difference between surge and ground

Reasoning behind short answer:
If plumber installs, then he knows the product and has relationship with manufacturer. Note: new water heaters are wider and sometimes taller because of April 2015 energy standards. Make sure plumber knows the size and installation differences since the old heater in the corner might not fit the same. Differences can cause delay and additional cost. For example if the old water heater is 60 gallon, you might want to downsize the gallonage to fit the space and the budget. If the plumber has to move gas line or vent, then a permit might be required.

If you buy and install water heater yourself, then read more below:
Remember new water heaters are larger today...
Plan ahead. Check manufacturer website for dimensions. MEASURE before you buy. Measure door openings, stairways, location of vent, TP valve, and available space.
Incoming gas line might need to be moved. Vent pipe shortened or offset elbow installed.
DIY resource for handling gas lines etc: How to install gas water heater

The challenge of installing new larger water heater is real. In one example, see photo, the plumber tipped new water heater to one side so the vent pipe lined up with old vent line. The nice new Bradford White tank was pushed into the gas shut off causing slight dent. The water heater worked fine, but customer was unhappy with the crooked installation, and future home buyer might see it as a negative. The plumber saved cost of installing offset elbow on the 4" double-wall vent pipe, or moving gas line a few inches. A permit would probably be required if plumber altered either the vent or gas line, and this would cause delay and increase cost. Good argument for installing yourself, and measuring before you buy.
DIY resource: How to install gas water heater

1)  Warranty:
Warranties are same across all brands. And same for 6 year, 9 year, 12 year tanks, as outlined below:
- First year parts-tank-labor are covered for original homeowner and non-commercial installation when installed by instructions outlined in product manual.
- After first year, parts-tank are covered, but no labor.
- Anode rods are not covered by any warranty.
- Required maintenance is not covered, such as inspecting and cleaning burner parts, but a failed thermocouple or new burner assembly are covered.
- In some cases, you might need local service technician to verify installation to get warranty coverage. For example, the warranty might not cover if water heater was installed in wet environment, non-ventilated space, dirty crawlspace or storage room with chemicals since dust, dirt, lack of air supply, bad venting, exposure to water and trace amounts of chemicals will affect gas appliance performance. Read about air supply. Clorox, pool chemicals, even in trace amounts, are inhaled by gas appliances and can destroy combustion parts. Read about corrosive environments. Dirt and dust can trigger FV failure and cause lock out. Read about FV failure. Read warranty information before you buy, and install according to manual.
- Simple one-dimensional Math shows that shorter warranty has greater percentage of full labor-and-material coverage. But other factors are excluded, for example, what if you need a new gas valve in year 7.

Note: Anode rod is not covered under any warranty since it is designed to sacrifice itself to prevent tank from rusting. Often, the warranty coverage requires you to perform maintenance shown in product manual, which means inspecting anode to prevent tank from rusting ... plus cleaning combustion parts periodically, cleaning air intake and avoiding dust, chemicals and flammables. Make sure home has proper electrical grounding. If electric panel is grounded to metal water pipes instead of ground rod, this can cause stray current corrosion, making pipes and steel water heater tank more reactive to water, rusting out tank prematurely despite anode rod. The advent of plastic pipe, PVC, poly etc, has reduced the risk of stray current corrosion.
DIY resource: How to replace anode rod
How to install gas water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Why you need ground wire

2)  6 year, 9 year or 12 year?
- Generally, the main difference between 6-9-12 year warranty is anode rod diameter, or sometimes 2 anode rods. You can convert 6 year tank into 12 year or 15 year by inspecting anode each 1-3 years, and maintaining tank as shown in product manual.
DIY resource: How to replace anode rod
How to maintain water heater

There may be other differences that are not considered on this webpage, such as heavier materials associated with longer warranty tanks. For example, commercial water heaters are made much heavier, and this implies that longer-warranty residential heaters are better than shorter warranty. Exactly what is the difference? It would be nice if manufacturer's informed the public, but dynamic of commodity prices, design changes, competition, and the legal environment might make it difficult for manufacturer to say what is being used.

After digging around available resources, Kenmore reveals the difference between 3-year and 6-year tanks is anode, drain valve, inlet tube, nipples, burner orifice and manifold door assembly. Each of these items is repairable.
No differences were shown in critical safety components, implying that gas control valve thermostat, TP valve, flammable vapor resistance, and thickness of tank wall were not lesser quality between 3 and 6 year tanks. This casual analysis is an example of possible differences, but not a reliable sample.
I do not recommend 3 year tank except as a lower-price opportunity.
DIY resource: Gas valve resources

Simple math comparison between 6 and 12 year heaters: if 6 year heater costs $550, and 12 year heater costs $800, the cost difference is $250. In exchange you get 6 years of extended part warranty, or $41 per year for longer warranty. Since a typical gas control valve costs $100 - $140 to purchase at retail (2016), the longer warranty might be best choice.
DIY resource: Gas valve resources

Cost of installation is a factor. Let's say installation cost for do-it-yourself is $100 no matter which heater you choose, then that adds 18% onto the price of the cheaper heater, but only 12% onto the more expensive heater. Typical items you might need include new flexible water connectors, flue pipe elbow, flue tape, screws.
If new heater is larger than existing space, then the additional cost could include moving gas line, walls etc, unless you opt to buy water heater with less gallonage.

Can you buy heaters larger than 55 gallon?

Yes. You can still buy 60-100 gallon water heaters. Shop around. Except the UEF (uniform efficiency descriptor) that took effect in April 2015, changed standards so heaters larger than 55 gallon have higher cost technology to meet the efficiency guidelines. The efficiency standards apply to all appliances so the electric grid and water supply can meet future growth. Read about the grid.

Options: Buy smaller gallonage heater, raise temperature of tank and install mixing valve to temper the hot water. Adding 20 gallon electric point of use heater can offset some issues since average shower uses 9 gallons hot water. Conservation is best solution, but if you need more hot water for oversized bathtub, I recommend installing two heaters if you need more than 60 gallons. This lets you turn off one heater when not needed.
Resources: Two water heaters
Advantages of mixing valve
Point of use water heater
Ways to increase amount of hot water
Gas water heater timer

3)  Don't buy expensive water heater, like tankless, or hybrid heat pump:
High-tech water heaters do not save money overall, do not last longer than ordinary tank heaters, do not have longer warranty, and are expensive to maintain and repair.
Tankless and Heat Pump, and Condensing heaters over 60 gallon size, are expensive to buy and maintain.
For example, tankless cannot be exposed to more than 11 grains hard water, and burner must be delimed each year to maintain efficiency. Tankless have no service manuals, and are not DIY repair. Local technicians might not be qualified to service the particular brand and model of tankless.
Heat Pump heaters are electric and not gas, but are mentioned here as a less efficient option to gas. Heat Pumps are not DIY repair. There might not be service manuals, and part replacement can be expensive.
My recommendation: If you need more than 60 gallon, install two heaters.
Resource: Two water heaters

4)  Why buy ordinary Whirlpool or Kenmore gas water heater ?
- Sold at local store. Easy returns if needed.
- Can be maintained and repaired by homeowner.
-Air intake is located on bottom and can be cleaned easily. See image of air intake location for AO Smith heaters A clean intake screen ensures good air supply and good air supply keeps efficiency high read about air supply. Water heater intake screens are not easily clogged unless unit is installed in dusty environment (garage, basement, shop, attic, laundry room, outside porch etc), but intake screens are part of the FV system and a clogged screen will cause shutdown read about FV.
- Tip: Set 3-legged water heater on bricks so air intake can be inspected and cleaned periodically.
- Whirlpool and Kenmore are made by AO Smith parent company. Other brands made by or similar to AOS include Reliance, State, American, Craftmaster, GSW etc.
- AOS service manuals are posted online, parts are designed for quick, ez replacement. -Key point: Installation manual shows how to perform maintenance in 2016.
Troubleshoot gas water heater

5)  Avoid Rheem?
Why? Rheem apparently makes Reliant, Richmond, Ruud, and GE
- Rheem makes a good product just like the other manufacturers. Except my website is for do-it-yourself folks.
- Cleaning arrestor screen requires removing burner. Combustion parts might be held in place with tamper-proof screws. Punch out center, and use regular hex to remove.
- Service manuals are NOT available online.... this is a major point for folks who want DIY repairs. Rheem phone call might yield assistance.

- The installation manual does NOT show how to perform basic maintenance, and says customer must call for service.  I disagree with this attitude toward do-it-yourself since people can fix water heaters, and a skilled public makes a better workforce.
- Rheem does not offer products that somehow need specialized treatment. I think the long-term plan is designed to funnel customers into brand-loyal service providers and installers ... which will be large company manned by a few people who are trained to sell add-on service.
- Remember gas appliances are dangerous, and do-it-yourself carries risk. However skilled technicians, handymen, DIYers, and the homeowner sometimes want to see a service manual and be able to check basic stuff, and Rheem web resources do not provide service manual or show maintenance steps. While other companies do.
Service manuals and Troubleshoot for gas water heater

6) Bradford White makes good heaters:
- All manufacturers make good heaters
- Are BW made better? Warranty is identical to other brands.
- Service manuals are available and the overall design highly recommendable.
-Air intake located on side helps prevent clogged intake screen See image of BW of air intake/ flammable vapor system, However, unlike AOS heaters where screen is located on bottom of tank, the BW requires you to disconnect manifold tube etc from gas valve, remove screws on front, and pull out burner assembly to clean the intake screen with compressed air see DIY resources. Keep in mind that manuals for all brands of water heater generally recommend removing and cleaning burner parts each year, although it's usually not necessary, rarely done, and requires moderate level of DIY knowledge about gas appliances see DIY resources. Removing burner parts for maintenance might require gasket to reseal combustion chamber.

-BW parts are ez to replace, except for anode rod.
-One negative: In 2016 Bradford White uses combo anode rod that is connected to hot water nipple. You have to remove hot-side nipple to inspect anode rod, except the nipple on top of new heaters doesn't stick up far enough to attach a wrench without tearing up the pipe threads. How to remove short nipple.

Other companies have same short hot-and-cold nipples on top of heater, but they use standard hex-head anode for most, but not all models. To determine which model has standard hex head anode vs combo, look for 2" diameter hole in the sheet steel with a plastic plug located on top of heater see image, then it's most likely a hex head anode. Remove plastic plug and use 1-1/16" deep socket to remove anode. Read about anode rods

You can replace nipples on new water heater and install longer pex-lined nipple, or non-corroding brass nipple. But 2016, you cannot buy a combo anode rod that has a longer nipple. The short nipple is intended to keep connections on new heaters the same height as old heaters. I hope the problem of short nipples will be addressed by manufacturers.
Buy from my affiliate links
Longer pex-lined nipple
3/4 x 4 brass nipple

Anodes are not a problem until the tank rusts or hot water has odor. The anode prevents rusting on inside of tank, but sometimes anode causes odor when exposed to some types of water sources. The cost of new heater and need to stretch budgets into the future make the anode a real consideration for maintaining your investment. Read about anodes
Note: Warranties do NOT cover anode rods. And some warranties say you must follow the maintenance to have warranty coverage ... which includes inspecting the anode rod. So there you are. The combo nipple on Bradford White heaters is too short to easily remove. So inspection of combo anode rod is difficult, yet you should perform the inspection. This is the only negative I can offer for Bradford White, otherwise it is highly recommendable.
Read about anode rods   
How to remove short nipple

7) Thickness of insulation
Insulation is thicker on new 30-55 gallon water heaters due to 2015 energy standards. This ends decades of mystery surrounding water heater insulation, and has corrected years of factual vagueness by manufactures who stopped showing thickness as a selling feature on their spec sheet while claiming that additional insulation blanket was not needed and voided product warranty.
- Despite having more insulation on sides and top of new heaters, the nipples on top of tank are still about the same height from floor, the flue pipes is in the center but may be higher, and the TP valve on side can be slightly different than older tank.
- One negative: the short nipples makes it hard to remove or replace.  Buy longer pex lined nipple
Some water heaters have combo anode rod connected to short hot-side nipple which is difficult to remove. Read about anode rods   How to remove short nipple

You can still add thermal blanket if you choose, but it cannot cover air intake, combustion chamber at lower part of heater, TP valve, or top of heater. As a footnote: improperly installed insulation blanket can cause gas heater to malfunction: It is not always advisable to install a blanket on a gas water heaters, and today's thicker insulation makes the decision easier.
Resources:  9-ways to save with water heater
Low hot water pressure
How to wire under counter water heater
Ways to increase amount of hot water
Tempering tank

8) Energy factor:
Energy Factor is the combined thermal efficiency and standby efficiency of a water heater. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater will be.
Rules of thumb:
-New water heater will have higher efficiency than old heater. Old heaters lose efficiency. New heaters have more insulation.
-30 gallon has better efficiency than 40 gallon.
-40 gallon has better efficiency than 50 gallon.
-Buying 40 gallon can save $9 per year over same model 50 gallon.
-Buying heater that is too small can 'overwork' the small heater and shorten lifespan.
-Over 55 gallon and water heaters are generally too expensive to give any energy benefit vs cost. All costs are energy.
-Higher cost of buying new energy-compliant heater might exceed consumer's financial gain from improved efficiency.
-Using less hot water is best strategy for saving energy. Resources9 ways to save with water heater  Ways to increase hot water
-Maintaining water heater will keep efficiency higher and investment will last longer. Resource How to maintain water heater

-Otherwise forget about EF. Why? 3 reasons:
1) EF (energy factor) is NOT efficiency. EF is a formula for calculating efficiency for residential heaters. Since 2015, manufacturers' spec sheets evade clarity, or show EF .675, leading folks to erroneously believe the efficiency is 67.5% when it's not.
2) Manufacturers conduct their own testing using the DOE's (department of energy) UED (uniform efficiency descriptor) that applies to water heaters manufactured after April 2015. It's like giving the student answers to the test, and then expecting the test to show the answer while letting them grade their own test.
3) EF applies only to residential water heaters. Manufactures are selling a different grade heater called 'residential duty commercial heaters' that supplies greater BTU capacity on a less-than-55-gallon size water heater. This lets the customer buy a less-than-55-gallon size that produces results equal to larger heater. However more BTU = more fuel = faster recovery = more hot water = less efficiency, meaning that manufacturers are possibly sidestepping the 2015 energy standard to meet market demand for hot water.

More details:
The EF formula for 'residential grade' gas water heaters between 30 and 55 gallons is .675 -  (.0015 x V) =  efficiency. The formula means you subtract .0015 x volume of heater in gallons to calculate efficiency.
50 gallon: .675 minus (.0015 x 50 gallon) yields efficiency of .60 on heaters manufactured after April 2015. (Pre-2015 water heater had efficiency of .58)
40 gallon: .675 minus (.0015 x 40 gallons) = .62 efficiency.
30 gallon = .63 efficiency.
All efficiency numbers are approximate, and based on correctly calibrated thermostat set at 125F instead of older standard of 135F. Actual efficiency varies widely depending on air supply, venting, long-term condition of heater, elevation above sea level, and other factors.
Resource with more details: How much does it cost to run gas water heater

Gas water heaters that plug into 120 volt outlet
If you do not have outlet located within 10 feet of water heater location, then a flue-damper type heater with higher efficiency is not correct choice, or install new 120 volt line with surge protection. See basic household wiring
Dedicated outlet offers less interference and is recommended for electronic gas control valves. Dedicated outlet means no other outlet, light or appliance is served by that circuit breaker. See image Outlet must have correct polarity and be grounded. See image
Loose electric plugs can cause interference with water heater. Plug directly into outlet. Do not use extension cord.
I suggest using surge protection outlet. It's okay for circuits to have more than 1 surge protector.
Buy:
15 amp surge suppressor receptacle
Outlet must have correct polarity and be fully grounded for the gas control valve sequence to work correctly. Use outlet tester.
 Buy: Outlet testers at Amazon
Reversed polarity see image will cause continual and difficult-to-diagnose problems with electronic devices.
Outlet that is not grounded can cause error codes, especially on power vent models.
Resources:
Can you unplug water heater to act as a timer? no
Install whole-house surge protector
Difference between surge and ground

-Note about electric surge:
-Any electrical device that plugs into outlet, or is connected to grounded or ungrounded copper pipes is susceptible to power surge.
Electronic gas controls can fail during a surge event.
Surge can be caused by nearby lightning strike, or simple power outage. Install whole-house surge protector

9) Electronic gas control valve is OK:
-Electronic vrs old-style mechanical gas control valve
-Electronic gas controls have been used on Heat-AC units for many years, and are reliable.
-Water heaters that have electronic control must be connected to a source of power to run internal circuit board, for example electric outlet. Atmospheric heaters that are not plugged into outlet, and have standing pilot light, use a thermopile instead of a thermocouple. A thermopile is basically several thermocouples combined, and produces enough current for a small circuit board. Generally, the gas control valve stores errors in memory until the number of errors exceeds a parameter, after which an error code sequence is issued to the status or indicator light(s).
-Water heater error codes are handy, but false error codes can occur if gas control valve has gone bad.
See error codes and temperature adjustment by type of gas control

10) Gas water heater timer
Yes there is a reliable gas water heater timer that fits both the older mechanical gas control valve and the newer electronic gas control valves.
I have examined and tested this device. It can be operated by timer, or home-automation modules using wifi, zwave or Insteon. The timer attaches to front of gas control valve and manually rotates dial between vacation setting (50F to prevent freezing) and your normal water heater temperature setting. Typical bath is 105 and generally not much higher. Read about gas water heater timer and get $5 promo code

Low Nox/ CO2
Low nox water heaters have a burner that reduces amount of pollution from NO nitrous oxide. Some states require lox-nox heaters, while other states declare the issue void because of 'free choice.'
Pollutants from burning fossil fuel include CO2, CO, NO, SO, acidic water. These pollutants are puffing out of every vent stack across the globe.
Remember one thing about air pollutants: when your body is working, thinking, living, or in distress, the best choice is O2 and not CO2, CO, NO, SO. Same is true for the food chain. At no time does a gas water heater vent stack pump out O2, implying that reducing consumption, downsizing, and using alternative energy sources is viable option. Improperly vented gas water heater will fill home with deadly gas that kills people. Move people outside and lay on side, never lay on back, and call for rescue.
Resources:
Is gas clean-burning?
Venting gas water heater

Alternative energy sources
Resources:
Connect AC electric water heater directly to solar panels/ high voltage DC
Connect AC electric water heater to solar panels/ low voltage DC
Should you buy solar glycol water heater

11) Buy water heater on Internet is ok.
-Save receipt.
-You have a contract with seller, but check warranty coverage.
-Warranty is probably through manufacturer’s insurance carrier.
-It is easier to return defect water heater to local box store if water heater has a defect, or chronic problem.
-You might need local service technician to verify installation to get warranty coverage.

Tankless
Avoid whole house tankless. Smaller electric tankless are useful for point-of use applications but are expensive for whole house.
Resources:
How to wire tankless electric
How to troubleshoot Rheem tankless water heaters
Home automation water heaters/ privacy concerns?
I am skeptical about privacy issues if manufacturer has included pre-installed wifi on appliances.
When smart meters were installed across the country... there were privacy concerns ... except smart meters broadcast such small packets of information that nothing of value was available for the amount of investment needed to gather it. The lack of useful information was one reason why the 'rash of new smart-grid products' has not materialized.

Compare smart meter with modern wi-fi.... wi-fi sends huge packets of information over the internet.
You do not own internet content. You are a consumer. You are using somebody else's product when you consume internet... and the owners profit by taking your information and selling it to other parties. I'm not talking about the waterheatertimer.orgs of the world, since we collect nothing. I'm talking about googles, bings, firefoxes, email trackers, ad servers, internet providers etc... because those services own the internet, and you are using their 'product.'
When you agree to terms-of-service for a product that has wi-fi connection, then your information is being collected. Your right to privacy is yielded.

But wait... the terms of service includes a 'privacy policy?'
In my opinion, the privacy policy guarantees that you cannot see what private information has been collected and distributed about you, because the information-they-collect-about-you is 'private.' This means the owner of your information can accumulate 'preferences' that might stop you from seeing full array of choices, or set a pre-determined price point based on past spending habits, or perhaps target you socially or legally. Additionally the privacy invaders can sell your contract to a service provider who will control which businesses appear in your search bar.

2016/ For example Windows 10 has huge potential for privacy invasion: Tracking location, e-mails, contacts, writing 'style' etc. And now Windows 10 is embedded inside medical equipment. Consider Windows 10 interface next time the d
doctor sticks a probe in your ear. However you can rest comfortably knowing that your cousin cannot see the x-ray because of 'privacy' but the entire office staff, hospital and insurance company can see the results, and your boss can glimpse a copy for the price of purchase.

Since your private information is valuable, I assume future water heaters will offer wi-fi on all models  ... letting the manufacturer accumulate 'error codes' from your equipment. Of course you agreed to terms of service when you purchased the thing, and opened the door to a soft text message every six months suggesting a check-up or risk losing your warranty coverage. Then if water heater breaks down, you automatically receive 'repair offers from several competing service providers' which all come from the same company disguised as several companies. And that single company purchased the rights to your service contract from the manufacturer. I am saying, just be careful, but it's probably too late because the 'smart' TV already heard you say it, which is why the police have been dispatched to your location.

3-phase electric water heaters for home use:
People frequently have opportunity to own commercial grade 3-phase electric water heater.
Three-phase electric water heaters are not more efficient, unless they are fully balanced and connected to commercial three-phase power.
Most commercial electric water heaters are non balanced, and have same efficiency as residential heaters.
3-phase (non-balanced or balanced) can be converted to single phase for home-use with wiring change-over.
When installing 3-phase commercial water heater in residential home, pay attention to thermostat range and element rating.
Elements and thermostats are generic for both residential and non-balanced, and can be replaced, however if element is rated 440 volt, then it will only produce 1/4 the heating power when connected to residential 240 volt power. Solution: look at rating printed on end of element and change element
Likewise, commercial thermostats look the same and work fine with residential power, but the temperature range is higher, approaching 170-180F. Residential hot water over 135 is extremely dangerous. Solution: make sure temperature setting is 120F or less. Typical bath temperature is 105F, while 120 will scald in less than 1 minute.
Resources:
How to convert 3-phase water heater to single phase
Commercial 3-phase thermostats

Which is best commercial gas water heater:
When you buy commercial-grade table saw... it is big and heavy and WILL cut wood without a doubt.
Same with commercial grade water heaters.
They will heat the water and last for years.
Sales price usually includes professional installation.
Caution: a commercial gas water heater usually has too large a BTU rating for household gas meter, and will not function for residential installation.


gas water heater timer
Gas water heater timer
Operated using timer, or using wifi, zwave or Insteon home-automation modules

Buy:
Gas water heater timer/ enter promo code GENO

Resource:
Installation, manual, and promo code
gas meter
Gas meter: install on water heater, or for renter
No power needed, optional remote readout

Buy:
EKM gas meter

Resource:
Installation and manuals
gas water heater
Gas water heater
Buy from my affiliate links:
50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters

Resources:
How to install gas water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Resources:
Troubleshoot Gas valves with manuals
Icon gas valve

How to replace water heater element Waste King disposal
How to wire tankless electric


Install point of use water heater
Titan tankless
Anode rods anode rods
Recirculation system

Tankless recirculation
Point of use water heater
Type 1 and type 2 surge protection surge protection

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