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How to add 3-way switch

Strip wire

This project uses 12-3 NM-B wire from local store.
To strip wire, carefully cut through plastic sheathing using utility knife
Do not cut into wires

Buy two 3-way switches
3-way switch has 3 screws, plus ground screw
One screw will be dark-colored
Dark screw is common screw

3-way switches at Amazon
20 amp 3-way switch
Single pole switch no neutral
Add 3-way switch  
Single pole- No Neutral
Box has two wires and ground
add 3-way switch

How to drop wire inside wall

20 amp 3-way switch
single pole swith neutral in box

Add 3-way switch   
Buy two 3-way switches
New switch box with 3-way switch
Replace switch in old box with 3-way
Run 12-3 wire between switches
Single pole- Neutral in box
Box has white wires covered with wire nut
Add 3-way switch
ST01 3-way switch Add 3-way timer
Intermatic ST01c timer/ 1 year warranty
ST01a almond
Intermatic ST01K combination timer
Ei600 5-year warranty timer at Amazon
CR2 replacement battery at Amazon

How to program and wire ST01 timer
Load ratings for Intermatic timers/ pdf
Intermatic ST01C & Ei600

Step-by-step installation of contactor
Figure volts-amps-watts for your water heater

Typical house Might not have convenient switches.

How to add 3-way switch upstairs to control light downstairs.
Then switch upstairs and switch downstairs control same light
Applies to any 2-story frame-construction home > on interior walls without insulation inside wall
          Walls with insulation: it is difficult to drop wires and fish wires without removing wall surface.
Read about remote control switch
How to wire switches

Convert single-pole switch to 3-way switch by adding 3-way switch upstairs

Add a new 3-way switch upstairs
Change Single-pole switch downstairs to 3-way.
New wiring lets both switches control same light.

Project assumes no insulation inside wall.
For interior walls only.
Exterior walls with insulation can be impossible to pull wires up between walls without removing drywall.
Project Overview

12-3 wire pulled up from single-pole light switch
Crown molding added to hide wire near top of wall
Remaining wire is inside wall, and not visible.

Box added to wall in Pink room
3-way switch installed in new box in pink room
3-way switch replaces single-pole switch downstairs
Box switches are 3-way switches

Wiring to existing light fixture not affected, and is not moved or changed.... and not shown in illustration
Basic structure close up
Each 2x4 wall has bottom plate and top plate
Bottom plate is single 2x4 that is 1-1/2" thick, and top plate is double 2x4 that is 3" thick.

Joists sit on top of the top plate.
Joists support floor on upper level. Many areas, code requires 2x12 joist 16" apart.
Once the joist is in place, 3/4" plywood is laid to make the floor.
The bottom plate is nailed over the plywood. So the bottom plate cannot be seen from below because plywood goes down first.

Ceiling sheetrock is nailed to joists before the sheetrock is applied to walls.
2x4 walls are covered with sheetrock and pushed up tight against sheetrock on ceiling.
The sheetrock on walls holds up edges of sheetrock on ceiling.
Load bearing walls are stacked over top of each other, so wall below supports weight on walls above.

Electrical wiring is run inside the walls
How to add 3-way switch
Larger image
Drill up into 2nd floor wall
Drilling upward is better for controlling location of hole in yellow room ceiling
And drill bit will not fall out of drill chuck

Use 18" drill bit extension + new 3/4" spade bit
Buy 2-3 drill bits
New bit will make job easier.
Do NOT drill through the joist if possible... drill between joists so joist is not weakened.
Sometimes there is a joist directly in the way... so go ahead and drill.
You might hit nails .... drill bit gets dull immediately... move drill bit over and drill new hole.
If it gets hard to do, then drill from above so you can put more weight on drill.
Or change to smaller size drill bit.

Remove baseboard in pink room using knife to cut caulk line on top of baseboard.
Gently pry baseboard off wall. Do not damage sheetrock.
Cut back sheetrock in pink room... cut enough so you can drop wire, and still have baseboard cover the work
Drill through ceiling
Larger image
2x8 nail block located in corner
Usually there is a 2x nailing block for sheetrock located in corner.
This is usually a 2x6 or 2x8 laid on side so sheetrock has a good support in corner.

If you drill farther down along edge of wall, the corner block is not there, and crown molding will still cover wire
House framing
Larger image
Typical framing
2x4 walls, 16" or 24" on center
Drywall on ceiling, 1/2" or 5/8" thick
HVAC register might be on ceiling
Top plate is two 2x4's

There are 2 types of joists
Long joists run from Load wall to Load wall
Shorter joists run along side walls
Short joists are for nailing drywall

Locate joists, and direction of joists before starting
Heat register If HVAC register is on ceiling, it can indicate direction of joists
If HVAC register is on floor, it can also indicate direction of joists
Ductwork travels between joists, unless there is a bulkhead installed for ducts.
Bulkheads are installed for ductwork because large holes cannot be cut through joists for running ductwork. Joists must be full size to carry load.
If there is a bulkhead, it begins and ends at a point that allows duct to go between joists.
Register is 15" wide and is nailed to both joists
Register will have duct work between same joists, so be careful when cutting into ceiling between those joists.
Local codes vary. Some codes require 2x12 joists 16" on center between floors.
Top plate is 3" thick.
Drywall on ceiling is 1/2" - 5/8" thick.
So hollow part of wall starts 2-1/2" down from top of wall.

Use 1" spade bit, or 1-1/4" bit. 
Set center of bit at 2-3/4" so it will catch part of top plate.
This will keep hole as high as possible.
If needed, make hole larger

Wash hands before starting so walls and ceilings are not marked with hand prints.

Illustration shows Joists sitting on load bearing wall.
If joists run other direction, the instructions are same.

Do not drill into joist. Drill into cavity next to joist.
Do not drill into heat duct

Install crown moulding
Keep nails away from wires
Crown moulding can be nailed into sheetrock.
best to hit a 2x4 when possible, but not necessary.
Angle nails slightly different directions to hold crown firm.
When making corner cuts, remember perfect is not necessary because filler can be added with putty knife.
Buy crown wide enough to cover wire and holes
Before cutting the crown, prime the wood, then sand, clean, and apply first coat of paint.
Sand lightly and apply 2nd coat paint.
This will make finish work easy.

Cut and nail the crown.
Spackle nail holes, caulk joins with wall and ceiling, caulk corners, then apply last coat of paint.
Crown moulding corners can be tricky.
Use putty knife to apply spackle to larger gaps at corner, if needed. Don't rush. Fill and let dry. Fill next gap and let dry. etc.

Make sure wall and ceiling touch up paint is available.
Wash hands before working on walls and ceiling to avoid handprints.
Electricity leaves power plant Resource: Electricity:
The grid is defined by three parts: transmission, distribution and end user. The following links show how it works
Power plant to end user power pole
Power pole to residential breaker box
Power pole to commercial breaker box

How to wire residential electric
How to wire commercial 3-phase

Why you need ground wire
How to wire 3-phase timer
3-phase water heater
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