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   Reliant heat pump water heater

Cost of operating Heat pump water heater

Review GE heat pump water heater
water heater cost
General rule, heat pump water heater lasts 10-12 years. Same as window air conditioner.
There is no way to prolong life of parts. Read warranty carefully. Extended warranty is pro-rated and will not pay for replacement.
Compare 10-12 year heat pump with ordinary tank-type electric heater that will last 'forever' as long as anode is inspected each 1-3 years and tank is not allowed to rust. Water pressure should be less than 80 psi for longevity of all types water heaters.
How to maintain water heater
10-12 year lifespan for heat pump means consumer must anticipate water heater replacement within 10-12 years (at expected higher replacement cost).

1) If heat pump is set to efficient mode, and not used as ordinary tank heater, it can cost $150-180 per year to operate x 12 years = $1800-2160.
If unit costs $1500-1800 to buy, then total water heater expenditure is $3600-3960 over 12 years. Assuming NO repairs.
Typical heat pump repair service call is $400 in 2012.
With no repairs: $3600-3960 divided by 12 years =

Heat pump 12 years no repairs: $275-330 per year

Heat pump 12 years 1 repair: $308-363 per year
Assumes full efficiency maintained throughout lifespan, and does not consider higher replacement cost, and level cost for electricity over expected life of heater.

2) If lifetime of heat pump heater is reduced to 10 years, and unit requires one $400 service repair bill, for total cost $3400-4200, then yearly cost is higher =

Heat pump 10 years + 1 service repair: $340-420 per year

Heat pump 10 years + 2 service repairs: $380-460 per year
If more heat pump repairs are added, then cost goes up by $40 per yer per each $400 service call.

3) Compare heat pump with ordinary tank-type heater converted to off-peak 120volt operation, and modest consumption:
Tank costs $300-350 to buy. Easy self-install. Replacement anode cost $50 each 5 years. Operation cost is $220-350 per year. Tank repairs are DIY using generic off-the-shelf parts from hardware store, anticipate repairs $30 each 8 years.

Tank lasts 'forever' as long as anode rod is inspected so tank will never rust, and water pressure is kept at 80psi or less, so lets say ordinary tank will last 20 years. Additionally, ordinary tank type heater can be connected to timer, while heat pump might have limitations.
Ordinary tank heater: Total cost over 20 years is $4660-7260 =

Low consumption regular tank-type electric with DIY maintenance and repairs: $230-363 per year

See strategies below for achieving heat-pump type results with ordinary tank-type electric water heater.

Single handle faucet 1. Do not turn on hot water when using cold
When hot is turned on, even a moment, cold water immediately enters water heater. Water heater runs more. Single handled faucet lifted in center will draw hot water from tank. Applies to gas and electric heaters.
Save $2-8 per month.
How water heater works
Water heater dip tube
9 ways to save with water heater
2. Install Dual-handle faucets when replacing faucets
Prevent unintentional hot water consumption
This type of faucet does not have crossover problem caused by bad cartridge.
It is easy to know when Hot water is drawn from tank.
Do not open Hot side when using cold water.
Save $2-8 per month
dripping faucet 3. Fix drips and leaks
When hot side faucet drips, then cold water is entering tank at same rate water is dripping out of faucet.
Government drip calculator

Save 1/2 gallon per day:
Save $1-8 per month.
How to wire water heater for 120 Volts

Change water heater from 240Volt to 120Volt

120Volt is slower recovery, and for homes with low consumption.
Mimics heat pump operation, minus compressor.

Wires inside heater remain the same.

Typical 240Volt water heater will work when connected to 120V or 240V <> if wires from breaker box are connected correctly as shown.

Hot wire from 120Volt breaker connects to Black wire at top of heater.
White Neutral wire connects to Red wire at top of heater.

Connecting Black wire to Black wire ensures that thermostats are turning the Hot wire on-and-off. This is electrically safe.

Elements will heat with 120V or 240V, when wires from breaker box are connected as shown.

How to wire thermostats
How to wire off-peak water heater
How to connect water heater to any voltage generator

Assumes 4500 watt element rated for 240V
Element wattage and voltage printed on end of each element
How to identify and replace elements
Wattage drops when voltage is reduced
See water heater label showing difference between 208V - 240V
Resistive loads such as light bulbs and elements will burn less hot when voltage is reduced. Examples: ordinary household dimmer for incandescent bulbs, or power brown-out when household voltage is reduced
Formula for 240-to-120V:
.25 x 4500 watts = 1125 watts
240 volt water heater circuit

How to convert 240 Volt circuit to 120 Volt circuit:

Image shows typical 240V water heater circuit.

To convert to 120V: Move black wire from 240V breaker to 120Volt circuit breaker rated for correct amps.
30 amp breakers and 10gauge wire run cooler with less heat loss. Circuit is more efficient, and breaker box lasts longer.

Move white wire from 240V breaker to Neutral busbar where ground wire connects.
Some breaker boxes have separate Neutral busbar where white wires are connected.

Basic 240Volt water heater circuit
How to replace circuit breaker
How to install subpanel
30 amp DPDT switch
Hubbell 30 amp 120/277 WVB3. Tterminal location varies, but numbering stays same.
Always Test terminals using continuity tester before wiring.
Another image
Hubble/ Bryant 3025 instruction sheet

Switch water heater between 120Volt and 240Volt

Use 240Volt during times when electric prices are lower, and faster recovery is needed. Use 120Volt during peak prices when less hot water is used

Using 30 amp Double Pole Double Throw switch
Also called: 30 amp DPDT switch

Connect 120Volt wires as Hot and Neutral. Black connects to 120Volt circuit breaker and Whitye connects to neutral busbar.
Connect 240Volt wires as Hot1 and Hot2. Both wires connect to 240Volt breaker.

30 amp maximum current/ safe limit 80% = 24 amps
Over-amped switch will feel warm/ hot
Double pole double throw 30 amp switch
Bryant 3025 at Amazon
At Global Industrial
Wire GE timer for 120-240 volts

Timer toggles water heater between 120Volt and 240Volt

Use SPDT timer with dry NO NC relay terminals to change water heater between 120Volt and 240Volt

Use 120Volt at peak-electric price.
Water heater recovers slowly with 120Volt.

Use 240Volt when electric prices are lower, and faster recovery is needed.

Intermatic GM40 series
Tork DTU40 timer
GE 15207 series timers
Dry terminals mean NO NC COM terminals are independent and receive no power when power is applied to timer clock on terminals H and N.
Change water heater temperature using timer
Larger image

Change water heater temperature using GM40 timer

Applies to Intermatic WHQ timer and  Tork DTU40 timer and GE 15207 series timers

240 Volt  

Intermatic GM series

Use timer for two different temperatures on electric water heater.

Either upper thermostat and element have power or lower themostat and element have power. But not both at same time.

Install ECO-protected thermostat for lower thermostat.
Both upper and lower parts of tank are ECO-protected from overheating
Rewire tank so upper and lower parts are separate.
Use GM40 timer to switch power between lower and upper parts of tank.

Normal operation, the lower thermost and element receive power and keep tank at temperature set point. Upper thermostat and element have no power.
This is called 'redundant' water heater operation. This technique for heating tank more rapidly after cold water first enters tank.
How to wire thermostats

When timer activates, power to lower part of tank turns OFF. Power to upper part of tank begins. Upper thermostat is set for higher temperature.
Since tank is at regular temperature, the higher setting means upper element will turn ON and begin heating tank to higher set point.

Use this technique to heat water very hot for laundry cycle.
Disadvantage: The lower part of tank will cool rapidly as new cold water enters tank, so this technique is good for making short-term batches of hot water.
Electric water heater recovery

Lower watt element heats more slowly

Peak price strategy: Reduce size of elements will cause less electric consumption per hour at peak price times.

Recovery Computation Formula
GPH= (watts x 3.412) / (8.25 x °Temp. Rise)
Timers that can be wired to toggle water heater between 120V and 240V
GM40 timer
Intermatic GM40 series
Intermatic GM40AVE
Et70215 timer
ET70000 series

GE 15207

GE 15132
Tork DTU water heater timer
Digital 240Volt
Tork DTU40
Install electric meter on water heater
Larger image

Buy and install electric meter for $60

How to install electric meter on water heater

Multimeters at Amazon

Handy tool DIY repairs: Multimeter

Multimeter: for testing voltage and continuity etc
Upper thermostats
See larger
Thermostats at Amazon
Water heater thermostats at Amazon

Repair tank-type heater yourself

How to replace thermostats

How to wire thermostats

Troubleshoot electric water heater
Two water heaters

Two water heaters can reduce bill

For high consumption homes
Peak pricing, operate one heater.
Non-peak: operate both heaters and have ample hot water
Read about 2 water heaters

9 Ways to save with a water heater
More off-peak strategies
Increase amount of hot water
Recycle old water heater
Tempering tank
Take apart thermostats
Camco thermostat at Amazon
Thermostats can be taken apart to separate ECO from thermostat.
Or buy AO Smith part #9004716115 with NO NC terminals.
Gas and electric water heatersSupport the economy:
Buy water heaters  from my associate links:

50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters at Amazon
50 gallon Electric water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon electric water heaters at Amazon
Hybrid / heat pump/ water heaters at Amazon

How to install gas water heater
How to install electric water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater
Point of use water heaters
Intermatic control centers Intermatic control centers:
+ manuals and parts

Including Z-wave
box timers Compare box timers

Control with Z-wave
programmable timer Compare programmable timers

Control water heater with programmable wall timer
Countdown timers Compare countdown timers

Control water heater with countdown timer
Compare power packs

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