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Watt density

$25 - $47
Ultra low watt density
5 year warranty
Ultra Low Watt Density/ ripple
Hard water element
Resists high mineral count
Minimum 15" diameter tank
Buy 240 volt:
4500 watt at Amazon
4500 watt at Amazon 13" diameter
5500 watt at Amazon
Camco elements at Amazon

Lifetime warranty
4500 watt +limited lifetime element

Reliance / no extended warranty
Low density/ ripple
Min 13" tank
Buy 240 Volt
Reliance 5500 watt ripple at Amazon
Reliance elements at Amazon
$13 - $26
Ultra low watt density
5 year warranty
Ultra Low Watt Density/ foldback
Hard water element
Resists high mineral count
Check minimum tank diameter
Fits any tank above minimum dia
Buy 120 volt
1500 watt 120 volt 8" minimum
Buy 240 volt:
2500 watt at Amazon 
3500 watt at Amazon
4500 watt at Amazon
5500 watt at Amazon

Warranties do not cover dry fire (electricity ON before tank is full of water).
Resource:
Read about dry fire/ pdf page 2
$10 - $16

Low watt density
Camco/ no extended warranty
Low Watt Density/ foldback

Check minimum tank diameter
Fits any tank above minimum dia
Buy 240 volt:
2500 watt at Amazon
3500 watt at Amazon
4500 watt at Amazon
4500 watt 12 pack
5500 watt at Amazom

6000 watt at Amazon/ 17" minimum tank  (6000 watts requires 8 guage wire)

Elements on this webpage are rated for AC voltages.
AC elements with work with DC
But Thermostats will melt with DC
 $20 - $30 per element

Universal flange high density
Camco/
5 year warranty
Low density foldback
Hard water element
Resists high mineral count
Buy 240 Volt
4500 watt 240 volt
5500 watt 240 volt

Warranties do not cover dry fire (electricity ON before tank full of water).
Resource:
Read about dry fire/ pdf page
$15 - $20 per element

Universal flange high density
Camco/ no extended warranty
Low density foldback
Minimum Tank diameter varies
Buy 240 Volt universal flange
4500 watt 240 volt 13' tank
4500 watt 12 pack
4500 watt 240 volt 9" diameter

Buy 240 Volt flat flange
4500 watt 240 volt 13" tank
4500 watt 240 volt 15" tank
$10 - $20 per element

Universal flange high density
Camco/ no extended warranty
High density
Minimum Tank diameter varies
Buy 120 Volt 6-9" diameter tank
1500 watt 120 volt 9" tank
2000 watt 120 volt 9" tank
Buy 240 Volt
1500 watt 240 volt 8" tank
2500 watt 240 volt 10" tank
2500 watt 6 pack
3000 watt 240 volt 12" tank
3000 watt flat flange 14" tank
3500 watt 240 volt 14" tank
4000 watt 240 volt 15" tank
4500 watt 240 volt 15" tank
High density element
Low density element
Screw-in elements
Watt density is about heat output per square inch of surface on a resistive heating element.
Watts/ square inch = density
Density of wattage output compared with surface area of element... high density element has less surface area than low density.
For purposes of this website, the topic is about heat elements for electric water heater, both commercial and residential.

High-low density:
Low watt density means heat is spread across more surface area.
The purpose of low desisity elements are to resist burn-out due to various conditions, such as water with high mineral content of water.
Low density element resists burnout.

All new residential water heaters come with high density elements, which can be changed to low density. There is no difference choose either type of element, except a possible benefit of low density for not burning out as quickly in hard water conditions.
Commercial 3-phase water heater elements, or 3U elements, are all high density by design, and low density is not available.
Commercial single phase water heaters are generally same as residential, except often these water heaters are designed for higher wattage (6000+ watts) which may not be available in low density.
Water heater element When replacing elements: Look at watts and volts printed on end of each element.
Volts: Match volts shown on element with volts shown on label on side of water heater.

Watts: Label on side of tank shows volts and watts for upper element & lower element/ total connected watts which is max wattage consumption of appliance/ when selecting element, buy same wattage or less wattage.
Some tanks have higher wattage on upper element, and lower wattage on lower element... might save money
Density: All new water heaters come with high density elements. Replace with high or low density as long as watts and volts are same. No loss of efficiency choosing either low or high density.
Lower watt density tend to last longer. Lower wattage can also last longer.
Foldback elements including Camco 5-year warranty elements (shown above) are for problem water with high mineral content
Residential: Both elements are never ON at same time... upper element ON -or lower element ON -or both elements OFF
Resource:
Figure volts amps watts for water heater
How electric water heaters work

resources for photovoltaic solar panels:
Yes. Ordinary element will work with Solar Panel (DC photovoltaic). Elements work fine, However DC amps melt thermostats
Read how to convert AC water heater to DC/ high voltage
Convert AC water heater to DC/ low voltage
watt density

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