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T100 series timers Programmable wall timers Auto-off timers Box timers
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Add another thermostat to gas or electric water heater
Control gas water heater with electric thermostat
Use gas water heater to control electric water heater
Control hot water valve using thermostat
Electric thermostat on gas water heater
Honeywell L4006 water heater controller Honeywell immersion thermostat
12-277 volt AC SPST controller
12-48 volt DC
Add to any hot water tank
Surface mount or immersion into tank
Temperature range: 100-180F
Water over 135 poses extreme danger of scalding.
Add mixing valve.

Buy 
Honeywell/ Rheem SP11798B
Honeywell L4006

Resources:
Add another thermostat to gas or electric water heater
Advantages-disadvantages mixing valve
Control recirculation pump using controller
L4006 manual
L4006 wiring illustration
Honeywell L8104 water heater controller
electric thermostat on gas water heater
Use torch or jig saw
Use same idea to add another thermostat to electric water heater
This is concept idea.
I have not tested this idea/    but seems reasonable
Electric water heater thermostat could be installed onto the inner tank of gas water heater and provide electrical control based on water temperature inside tank... for example turn off power to recirculation pump that pumps water from solar panel or secondary tank...or control electric water heater from the gas water heater... or turn off solenoid valve that turns off gas line... or connect to indicator light to notify when tank reaches set point... or connect to solenoid water valve that turns on hot water. Thermostat is mechanical and will work with 12-12 Volt AC-DC, 120-208-240, 277 volt AC electricity.

Operation would not conflict with ordinary operation or safety features of gas water heater assuming temperature of water does not exceed the 180-190 degree trip-off of gas control valve ECO. Read about gas control valve thermostats

1) Cut through outer shell near top of tank on opposite side from TP valve

Voids product warranty
Wear respirator to avoid fumes from cutting insulation
Install electric thermostat on gas water heater 2) Cut 3/4" hole for conduit connection and wires


tapered drill bit Tapered drill bit for plastic or metal box
Buy tapered drill/ step drill bit for any size hole
Step drill bits at Amazon
Neiko tapered drill bit 1/4"-1-3/8 holes
Buy electric wiring Book
Black and Decker Complete guide to wiring
More resources;
See inside main breaker box
control gas water heater with electric thermostat
4) Epoxy or weld small clip to steel tank that holds thermostat
Thermostat clip Buy
Adapter kit with thermostat clip
Thermostat clip Clip to hold thermostat/ Thermostat mounting bracket
Bradford White part # 239-44479-00/
Mounting bracket plus 2 thermostats 265-51046-00

Buy

Adapter kit with thermostat clip
Bradford White 239-44479-00 thermostat bracket at Bradford
265-51046-00 at Amazon
Thermostat clip    Thermostat mounting bracket Clip to hold thermostat/ Thermostat mounting bracket
Bradford White part # 239-44479-00/
Mounting bracket plus 2 thermostats 265-51046-00
Rheem AM23557

Buy

Adapter kit with thermostat clip
Bradford White 239-44479-00 thermostat bracket at Bradford
265-51046-00 bracket plus 2 thermostats at Bradford White
265-51046-00 bracket plus 2 thermostats at Amazon
control gas water heater with electric thermostat
5) Install ordinary upper thermostat

Thermostat must sit flat against tank to read temperature through tank wall
Choose thermostat set point between 90-150 -or- 120-180
Thermostat turns ON or OFF at thermostat set point, depending on wiring
Rated 30 amps @ 240 Volt. Works with any voltage 12-24-28-120-208-240-277
Mechanical switch requires no voltage to operate switch

Buy 90-150 degree F for residential tank:
Rheem thermostats
Water heater thermostats at Amazon

Buy 110-170 degree F commercial thermostat
Rheem SP8293 thermostat 110 to 170
Rheem SP8295 lower 110 to 170
magnetic thermostat switch 5a) Use magnetic thermostat switch instead of water heater thermostat

Magnetic .... no bracket needed.
ON at 120F / OFF at 90 F... use relay if you want OFF at 120F and ON at 90F
Rated 15 amps @ 120 Volt. Works with any voltage 12-24-28-120-208-240-277
Mechanical switch requires no voltage to operate switch
Control contactor with thermostat
Buy 90-120 degree F thermostat:
Magnetic thermostat kit at Amazon
Thermostat switches at Amazon
Adjustable thermostat 130-90
Oven thermostat
Resource:
Bi-metal thermostat switch limits
T36 therm-o-disc
Contactors
Select breaker and wire size
electric thermostat on gas water heater 6)  Cover thermostat with insulation and add salvaged cover off electric water heater from recycle center.
Thermostat must be covered with insulation. Exposure to open air will cause thermostat to misread tank temperature

Resource:
How to wire electric water heater thermostats
Insulation and cover must be over thermostat.
Exposing thermostat to cool room temperature will cause tank to overheat.
Thermostat cannot read correct temperature unless covered correctly.

Buy:
Upper element terminal protector
Lower element terminal protector

Resource
Troubleshoot electric water heater

Upper and lower thermostats
thermostat temperature range


Buy residential upper and lower thermostats
Thermostats are interchangeable/ each works with your water heater
Buy 90-150 degree F for residential tank:

Water heater thermostats at Amazon
Rheem thermostats
More thermostats
89T short/ dual-element thermostat at Amazon
All therm-o-disc products


Resources:
Therm-o-disc 59T-66T sell sheet/ pdf
Therm-o-disc thermostats

Difference between Rheem thermostats
Commercial water heater thermostats Commercial upper and lower thermostats
Commercial thermostats are used for 3-phase balanced and other commercial heaters rated for high temnperature.
Residential tank thermostat is rated 90-150 F
Residential water heater TP valve will release water at 170
Buy/ 3 phase water heater thermostat 120-180 degree F
Commercial grade upper thermostat
Rheem SP8293 thermostat 110 to 170
Camco 120F to 180F

Commercial grade lower thermostat
Rheem SP8295 lower 110 to 170
Camco 120 to 180F lower

DIY help for 2 water heaters: Make lower thermostat from upper
Read about two water heaters

Best to replace both thermostats.
There is no guaranteed way to test thermostats.
If thermostat is sticking, then test includes rotating temperature knob which can temporarily unstick thermostat. So bad thermostat appears to work correctly.
89T thermostat kit
89T thermostat
89T thermostat kit
Buy from my affiliate links
Shorter style 89T single-element thermostat at Amazon
89T13 dual-element thermostat at Amazon
89T13 dual element kit with jumper wire

Shorter style 89T single-element thermostat at Amazon
89T short/ dual-element thermostat at Amazon
Therm-o-disc thermostat protectors Thermostat protectors/ for therm-o-disc upper and lower thermostats
Terminal protectors for therm-o-disc
Does not fit Apcom style
All thermostats are interchangeable

Buy:
Upper element terminal protector
Lower element terminal protector

Off code water heater element thread to pipe thread            1" NPT stainless nut          silicone O ring

Be careful when connecting stock tank to AC voltage
NEVER touch this metal tank when power is ON
Install safety shut-off switch
Label the tank. Label the safety switch
Stand on dry boards
Never stand on bare soil
If you connect 48 volt DC solar power to elements, using small soar array or windmill generator, to keep tank from freezing, then that voltage will not kill
Install element
Drill 1" hole
Insert element
Use element washer or use silicone O ring
Tighten element with 1" stainless nut
NOTE: the element is straight thread, not tapered thread

Control with water heater thermostats or with digital controller
Buy:
Silicone O ring
1" straight pipe thered to hose thread
1" stainless nut
Water heater elements

Resource:
Read how to convert AC water heater to DC/ high voltage
Convert AC water heater to DC/ low voltage
Formula for heating in perfect environment without considering heat loss from exposure to open air, lack of insulation:
Gallon Per Hour (Electric) = (KW x 3413) divided by (temp. rise x 8.25) or (KW x 414) divided by (temp rise.)
Let's say you have 5500 watt elements.
let's say incoming water temperature is 65F and you want to heat tank to 105, or 40 rise in temperature.

5500 watt or 5.5Kw elements x 3413 = 18771.5
40 degree temperature rise x 8.25 = 330
So in this situation, each element would heat 56.88 gallons per hour

If you have 4500 watt elements and incoming water temperature is 55, and you want to heat to 120, then the temperature rise is 65
4.5 KW x 3413 = 15358.5
65 degree temperature rise x 8.25 = 536
So one element would heat 28 gallons per hour

This number is for EACH element, but does NOT consider heat loss from open tank, room temperature, or lack of insulation.
water heater control
Larger image
Control box for the tank shown above using digital controller
Digital controller activates a contactor (simple electromagnetic switch)
There are 4 contactors... 1 for each element
There are 4 breakers... 1 for each element
And they installed a delay timer because the entire load of 4 elements is 120 amps... and they wanted 2 elements to start later than first two elements so the main breaker does not trip

Resources:

Delay timer installation
Contactors
Select breaker and wire size
PID temperature controller Digital controller... activated by temperature probe
Proportional Integral Dervative/ PID control
PID controller is activated by temperature-sensitive thermocouple or thermopile.
Use the PID to control any other circuit.
Best to use PID to control a contactor or relay instead of directly connecting load to PID
Use contactor or relay as shown in illustrations below

Using a separate contactor or relay that is rated for elements and motors allows millions operations without risk of overload and burnout of PID terminals.

Buy:

PID Temperature controllers
Digital temperature controller
30 amp contactors
Omron relay
Solid State Relay Board for Arduino


Resources:
Contactors
Select breaker and wire size
Example wiring for PID
PID wiring Example PID thermostat wiring
Thermocouple temperature sensor connects to terminals 4-5
Check input and output voltage before buying PID
PID wiring
PID
This wiring design, both hot wires to element are cut off by contactor.
Do NOT connect 240 volt 30 amp water heater circuit to PID... must use contactor

Buy:
PID Temperature controllers
Digital temperature controller
30 amp contactors

Solid State Relay Board for Arduino

Resources:
Contactors
Select breaker and wire size

Re-wire water heater for PID
Insert probe near lower thermostat.
Position against tank wall and cover w insulation

Wire thermostat and element as shown
240 volt line for water heater MUST be routed through ECO located on upper thermostat.
Why? Because ECO is safety device that will cut power to element in event of overheating.

PID is powrered by 120 volt for example.
Hot and neutral are needed for PID.
Set temperature controller program.
When temperature probe senses cold water, then PID activates contactor
Contactor switches 30 amp water heater circuit, and lower element tuns on.
Lower element keeps tank hot.

Add PID to water heater to turn off solar pump before it overheats tank and trips ECO-reset on upper thermostat
This is for a dual-purpose tank, where you connect your own solar collector, but keep the electric connection.
Typical home water heater is NOT rated for solar applications, and ECO-reset button will not turn off solar pump unless rewired for that purpose.
Solar temperatures can reach 180F ... this is a fatal temperature if tank ruptures when you are resetting the ECO.

Insert probe near upper thermostat.
Position against tank wall and cover w insulation
Saves having to reset on very sunny days, prevents tank from overheating, keeps you away from very hot water.
Shortcoming of this design is that it not fail-safe if the PID or the contactor fails. And the ECO trip only tells you that the tank overheated.
 A new tank is supposedly rated 300F, but older tank is probably weakened by rust.
One final water heater safety device is the TP valve that releases very hot water to protect tank, but doesn't protect rusted tank or your property. Always stand clear of the TP valve release.

Buy:

PID Temperature controllers
Digital temperature controller
30 amp contactors

Solid State Relay Board for Arduino
Oven thermostat Control temperature using oven thermostat
16 amp @ 240 volt.
Use contactor to control 30 amp 240V element

Buy:
Oven thermostat
Magnetic thermostat kit at Amazon
Thermostat switches at Amazon
Adjustable thermostat 130-90
grundfos thermostat
Clip-on thermostat control

Control 120 volt circuit with clip-on-pipe thermostat
grundfos thermostat Clip on thermostat control
120 volt thermostat-switch clips onto water line
Intended for use with UP series pump and timer
Lets you control pump or any 120 volt circuit based on temperature of water pipe
Read manual and make sure it fits intended application
Local hot tub at YMCA/ temperature set at 105/ Typical shower-bath 110 degrees F

Buy:
Taco aquastat 95-115 degree
Thermostat/ ON at 85 degrees/ OFF at 105 degrees
Aquastat (thermostat)/ ON at 105 degrees/ OFF at 115 degrees
24 hour programmable timer for UP series pumps
Grundfos recirculation systems at Amazon
UP series pump at Amazon

Resource:
Clip on thermostat manual
UP series specification sheet
How to install recirculation system

water hreater freezing Prevent water heater freezing
Add a freeze control circuit to water heater wires.
This would activate when temperature drops below 40F.
When you leave for vacation, turn off 30 amp switch, and then freeze control overides switch when air temperature drops below 40F

Buy:
Freeze thermostat
30 amp switches
30 amp contactors

Resources:
More about Contactors
Override water heater timer with freeze control


Multimeter
Test for breaks in wire/ Test for voltage
Most appliance require 80% rated voltage to function correctly
Buy:
Multimeters at Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon 
Resource:
How to test and replace element
How to test thermocouple
Element tests for 120 volts
How to test wire
Safety when testing wires:
Never touch wet or previously flooded appliance.
Never stand on wet surface when working on electric.
Never stand on bare soil, put down dry boards.
Tape tester leads to wood sticks to keep hands away from power.
Use non-contact voltage tester before touching wires.
Never touch or lean into any made of metal.
Remove metal objects from pockets.
Do not use oxygen or fuel accelerants in same room as electrcial repairs

Resource:
Basic house wiring

Non-contact voltage tester
Test for power without touching connectorss
NEVER assume power is OFF
Buy:

Non-contact voltage tester Amazon
Electric testers at Amazon 
Resource:
How to test electric power is off
wire connector assortment
Twist-on wire connector assortments
Do not reuse old connectors 
Buy
Connector assortment at Amazon
Connector assortment at Amazon

Resource
How to select and install twist-on wire connectors
Weatherproof wire connector
Weatherproof wire connector
Connector cavity is full of silicone
Built-in cover keeps silicone in place
Protect from water, dust etc
Buy
Weatherproof size 14 to 6 Amazon
Weatherproof size 22 to 8 Amazon

Resource
How to select and install twist-on wire connectors
Wire connector wrench
Wrench to apply wire connectors
Tighten connector 
Buy
Wire connector blaster
Twist connector wrenches at Amazon

Resources:
How to twist wire
How to select and install twist-on wire connectors
Treminals
Terminals
Buy:
Terminal kit
Blue for 16-14 wire
Yellow for 12-10 wire
Read about terminals
Push on wire connectors
Push-on wire connectors in place of twist-on connectors
Buy
Push on wire connectors Amazon
Red 3P connector for 10-14 gauge wire
Lever connectors for stranded wire at Amazon

linesman pliers
Buy tools:
Wire strippers at Amazon
Linesman pliers
Utility knife at Amazon
End cutting nippers at Amazon

Fire inside timer caused by stranded wire
Keep enclosure door closed at all times


Household NM-B Wires are color-coded so inspectors/ electricians can easily identify which wire is used during construction
Match wire size and breaker amp rating
If your home was wired by professional electrician who pulled permits, then circuit breaker and wire size will match. If manufactured home or travel trailer has not been altered by homeowner then breaker and wire size will match.

If breaker is oversized for wire... fire danger
Breaker can let too much electricity travel through the wire. Wire can overheat and cause fire.
Call electrician if you suspect wiring is not correct,
Absolute electrocution danger when removing cover off main panel. More information below.
Main breaker terminals are still Hot when main breaker is turned off.

Buy:
Wire wire at Amazon
Resource
Select correct wire and breaker size
How to replace circuit breaker
Electricity leaves power plant What is 3-phase electric: power plant to end user
3-phase water heaters
Gas and electric water heaters Support the economy:
Buy water heaters  from my associate links:
50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters at Amazon
50 gallon Electric water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon electric water heaters at Amazon
Hybrid / heat pump/ water heaters at Amazon

Resources:
How to install gas water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater

Resources:
Troubleshoot Gas valves with manuals
Icon gas valve

How to replace water heater element Waste King disposal
How to wire tankless electric


Install point of use water heater
Titan tankless
Anode rods anode rods
Recirculation system

Tankless recirculation
Point of use water heater
Type 1 and type 2 surge protection surge protection

Gas and electric water heaters Buy
Industrial electric

Industrial supplies

Tools and home improvement

Home and garden

Hayward pool

Southwire electric
Buy Tools
DEWALT
Black and Decker
Stanley
SKIL
Makita
Porter-Cable
Bosch

Irwin Hand tools
Klein hand tools
Fluke electrical testing
Dremel hobby tools

Campbell Hausfeld air powered
Tekton automotive
Powerbuilt automotive
Saws and saw blades
box timers Resource:
Compare box timers
DPDT timers
Intermatic
Control water heater w/ Z-wave
Intermatic control centers Resource:
Intermatic control centers: and parts
Digital control centers and parts
Tork control centers and parts
Subpanels
All control centers and parts
programmable timer Resource:
Programmable timers
Countdown timers
Off delay timers
On delay timers
Timer modules
Din rail
Twin & one-shot
Woods
Intermatic
Tork
Low voltage power packs Recirculation systems
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