Link to: New government water heater standards April 2015
Waterheatertimer.org
is a self-help site
Emergency steps to turn off water heater
Figure Volts Amps Watts for water heater How to wire tankless electric
How to install point of use water heater Point of use water heater
T100 series timers Programmable wall timers Auto-off timers Box timers How to set timers
Compare 16 electric and 3 gas water heater timers Troubleshoot Rheem tankless Figure correct wire and breaker 9 ways to save with water heater
How to install recirculation system Point of use water heater
How electric water heater works Troubleshoot electric water heater Troubleshoot gas water heater How to wire subpanel Do-it-yourself

How to maintain water heater
2015

How much does it cost to run water heater/ 

all costs are energy... If it costs $400 to repair.... that is reduced efficiency

Energy cost of 1 bath: assumes 60x30x14 insulated bathtub

Assumes Temperature rise 60
Incoming water temp 60, raise to 120 hot water inside tank
Assumes 15 gallon of hot water needed for regular bathtub
Total 42 gallon bathtub to overflow
Displacement 20 gallon for person
Total water consumption 20 gallon
Hot water 75% to 80% with thermostat set at 120
Total hot water consumption for this bath is 15 gallons

Estimates are conservative, based on fairly large person in tub, and tub not filled to overflow
Also this is the small bathtub with outside dimensions 15x30x60
water consumption bathtub

Cost of hot water for 1 bath/  

Tank Electric water heater

It takes .146666 Kwh to raise 1 gallon 60
.146666 Kwh x 15 gallon = 2.19 Kwh per bath

Divide 2.19 Kwh by efficiency rating of water heater, then multiply by cost per Kwh hour you pay.

*For example, typical pre-2015 electric water heater efficiency is 96%:
So 2.16 Kwh .96 = 2.25 Kwh x 15 = cost 34 per bath

*For example, typical 2015 electric water heater efficiency is 99%:
So 2.16 Kwh .99 = 2.18 Kwh x 15 = cost 33 per bath

Cost of hot water for 1 bath/  

Tank gas water heater

1 therm = 100,000 BTU
Cost per therm .42-1.10
1 BTU to raise 1 lb of water 1F
15 gallons of water = 125 lbs
Raise 125 lbs water 1 = 125 BTU
Raise 125 lbs 60F = 125 BTU x 60 = 7500 BTU
1 BTU = .00001 therm

*For example, typicl pre-2015 gas water heater efficiency .61
So 7500 BTU .61 efficiency = 12295 BTU for 1 bath
12295 BTU x.00001 therm = .12295 therms per bath
Cost 05 to 14 per bath

*For example: typical 2015 water heater
So  7500 BTU .675 efficiency = 11111 BTU for 1 bath
11111 BTU x .00001 therm = .11111 therms
Cost 05 to 10 per bath depending on cost of therms

Cost of 1 bath: assumes large walk-in bathtub

Assumes Temperature rise 60
Incoming water temp 60, raise to 120 hot water inside tank
Assumes 45 gallon of hot water needed for walk-in bathtub

Total water consumption 55 gallon
Total Hot consumption 45 gallons

Cost of hot water for 1 bath/  

Tank Electric water heater

It takes .146666 Kwh to raise 1 gallon 60
.146666 Kwh x 45 gallon = 6.6 Kwh per bath

Divide 6.6 Kwh by efficiency rating of water heater, then multiply by cost per Kwh hour you pay.

*For example, typical pre-2015 electric water heater efficiency is 96%:
So 6.6 Kwh .96 = 6.875 Kwh x 15 = cost $1.03 per bath

*For example, typical 2015 electric water heater efficiency is 99%:
So 6.6 Kwh .99 = 6.66 Kwh x 15 = cost $1.00 per bath

Cost of hot water for 1 bath/  

Tank gas water heater

1 therm = 100,000 BTU
Cost per therm .42-1.10
1 BTU to raise 1 lb of water 1F
45 gallons of water = 375 lbs
Raise 375 lbs water 1 = 375 BTU
Raise 375  lbs 60F = 375 BTU x 60 = 22500 BTU
1 BTU = .00001 therm

*For example, typicl pre-2015 gas water heater efficiency .61
So 22500 BTU .61 efficiency = 36885 BTU for 1 bath
36885 BTU x.00001 therm = .36885 therms per bath
Cost 16 to 40 per bath

*For example: typical 2015 water heater
So  22500 BTU .675 efficiency = 33333 BTU for 1 bath
33333 BTU x .00001 therm = ..33333 therms
Cost 14 to 37 per bath depending on cost of therms
None of these costs factor maintenance, installation, purchase, repair, replacement of water heater... which can substantially add cost to final energy numbers.
All costs and decisions are energy.
There are 4 ways to cut energy cost:
Use less hot water, use renewable energy, use cheap and simple DIY products, use complex and expensive products
Avoid promotional literature that promises amazing savings


Numbers on this page DO NOT consider maintenance and repair and other factors

Numbers do not consider cost of parts, risk of power surge, ease of installation, inconvenience of installation, integration with other sources of energy, ease of maintenance, vulnerability to hard water and water conditions

1) For example ordinary electric water heater:
simple to install, cheap & easy DIY repair using generic parts, service manuals available, can be integrated with timers and solar and geothermal, can be integrated with DC power, can run on any voltage, can be connected to single-phase or 3-phase, can be installed anywhere inside structure including under sink or small closet, can store heat, does not suck air into home, can be easily metered to determine exact cost per capitia, no electronics, can be repaired after strong surge, can be fully insulated blanket, pipes can be insulated right down to tank, personal belongings can be set against tank, can be maintained to last almost forever, can be exposed hard water and fully repairable afterward, can be connected to PV solar or passive solar, can be wired many different ways to meet peak electric pricing, electricity is manufactured at power plant where carbon abatement is localized instead of at each home

2) Contrast with electric heat pump.
Differences. Heat pump is large and heavy, makes noise, cannot be repaired DIY,
no service manuals, fewer generic parts, must be installed in 10'x10' room and spaces 7" away from wall, requires clean incoming air supply, can affect heat-cooling bill, filter cleaning yearly, requires condensate drain, electronics very vulnerable to surge, must be continually connected to power source, using timer can reset water heater to default, must be connected to clean stable 240 Volt, cannot be integrated with other sources of electric power such as 120 volt or 2770 volt etc, might be repairable after power surge, strong power surge will destroy many parts, cannot be fully insulated, can NOT be maintained to last forever.
All Costs are energy,
Total energy-cost equals purchase-price of water heater, plus installation, plus expected maintenance, repairs-and-parts, plus water softener-and-filter, plus disposal-recycling cost, divided by years of tank life. These numbers are added to monthly energy consumption to measure true cost of a water heater
.

Industry promotional brochures usually consider only energy cost per gallon of heated water for brand new tank under ideal conditions. And do not consider drop in efficiency over time, or 
peripheral costs listed above.

How much does it cost to run ordinary electric water heater

3 hours is approximate daily run-time for water heater [depending on usage and temperature of incoming water etc]
Bath uses 12-15 Gallons hot water <> shower uses 5-9 Gallons hot water > Hot water use chart

Examples assume ordinary 240Volt water heater/ non-simultaneous operation

5500 Watts x 3 hours = 16,500 watt-hours or 16.5 Kwh per day
For a full 30-day month <=> 30 days x 16.5 Kwh per day = 495 Kwh per month for water heater electricity
Calculate cost <=> 495 Kwh x $.10 per Kwh = $49.50 + add tax
3 hours per day
5500 Watt  = 495 Kwh per month
4500 Watt  = 405 Kwh per month
3500 Watt  = 315 Kwh per month
1500 Watt = 135 Kwh per month
Watts appear on water heater label
3 hours a day @ 10 per Kwh
5500 Watt tank = $49.50 per month
4500 Watt tank = $40.50 per month
3500 Watt tank = $31.50 per month
1500 Watt tank = $13.50 per month
+ add tax
3 hours a day @ 12 per Kwh
5500 Watt tank = $59.40 per month
4500 Watt tank = $48.60 per month
3500 Watt tank = $37.80 per month
1500 Watt tank = $16.20 per month
3 hours a day @ 14 per Kwh
5500 Watt tank = $69.30 per month
4500 Watt tank = $56.70 per month
3500 Watt tank = $44.10 per month
1500 Watt tank = $18.90 per month
     3 hours a day @ $.16 per Kwh
    5500 Watt tank = $79.20 per month + tax
    4500 Watt tank = $64.80 per month
    3500 Watt tank = $50.40 per month
    1500 Watt tank = $21.60 per month
     3 hours a day @ $.20 per Kwh
    5500 Watt tank = $99.00 per month + tax
    4500 Watt tank = $81.00 per month
    3500 Watt tank = $63.00 per month
    1500 Watt tank = $27.00 per month
Avg state price chart in pdf
Electric water heater and energy factor
EF Energy factor Gallons Typical yearly cost

EF or energy factor for electric water heater is higher than gas water heater

Because element is immersed in water and full heating goes into water. No waste goes up flue stack as in gas water heater.
However gas delivers more BTUs faster than electic.
Gas costs less per BTU than electric
.95 40-50 $492
.93 40-50 $503
.90 40-50 $520
.88 60 $531
Resources:
Water heater causing high electric bill
9 ways to save with water heater
DIY electric water heater repair
How to install electric meter on 240Volt water heater
Forget guesswork. Put a meter on it.

Resources:
Kwh needed to heat water
Family Chart for setting water heater timer
Tank wattage:
Figure volts amps watts for water heater
1. Find label on side of water heater
2. -or- Google brand and model number of heater to find .pdf of manual
3. Voltage & wattage also written on end of each element see example

See label image
Look for watts on label
1. Watt rating of element(s) is usually 1500, 3500, 4500, or 5500 Watts
2. Element wattage ranges from 600 to 6000
3. Water heater wattage is same as element wattage, since both elements are not turned ON at same time.
Cost performance electric water heaters
Larger image

Read: Heat pump connected to refrigerator heat
Cost performance of electric water heaters.
Numbers are for comparison only. Maintenance is not considered.
Cheaper water heaters have lower EF, are cheaper to maintain.
More expensive water heaters generally have higher EF, are more expensive to maintain. You probably cannot fix heat-pump water heater yourself.
All costs are energy and more expensive heaters cost more to install and cost more to maintain, so the payback period shown is probably not accurate.

Read PDF
Attend the Hot Water Forum
9 ways to save with water heater

Gas water heater burner

How much does it cost to run GAS water heater

See pdf with more details
AO Smith water heater
AO Smith gas
Larger image
Size 40-50 gallon Energy factor Natural Gas year 2010 LP Gas
.56 $315-320 $530
Typical gas: .58 to .62 .60 $300-315 $500
.67 $272-280 $475
.82 $225 $380
Water heaters with higher recovery and first-hour delivery may not have EF rating.
High-recovery heaters are for high-demand, and consume more BTU per gallon of hot water to keep up with demand.
Tankless water heaters also consume more BTUs per gallon of hot water since water is heated quickly as it passes in a pipe. High consumption heaters have larger gas lines and vent pipes.
Numbers apply to new water heaters

EF energy efficiency factor explained
First hour rating explained
Cost performance electric water heaters
Larger image
Cost performance of gas water heaters.
Numbers are for comparison only. Maintenance is not considered.
Cheaper water heaters have lower EF, cheaper to maintain.
More expensive water heaters generally have higher EF.
Payback period is very large, and exceeds likely lifespan of each product.
All costs are energy and more expensive heaters cost more to maintain.

I question that tankless payback is correct since tankless manufacturers market themselves as 'endless' hot water, implying more gallons of usage. Moreover tankless numbers are based on factory temperature setting 120 degrees F, which could be lower than most people set temperature.

Read PDF
Attend the Hot Water Forum
How to install typical gas water heater

Example Energy Factor Charts for gas water heater
Energy factor between gas and electric cannot be compared
Each company makes many different models of water heater
Each model has chart showing specs including tank size, model number, recovery, BTU input, Energy Factor, etc
Water heater manufacturers
American water heater energy factor EXAMPLE typical gas water heater EF
American energy factor .58 to .62

Larger image
AO Smith energy factor EXAMPLE typical gas water heater EF
AO Smith energy factor .58 to .62

Larger image
Rheem energy factor EXAMPLE typical gas water heater EF
Rheem energy factor .58 to .62

Larger image
EXAMPLE 2010 chart showing typical Lowes Whirlpool water heaters
EF .58 to .62

Larger image

Compare equipment using EnergyGuide Label.
Label shows what it costs to operate each unit on an annual basis, using national average energy prices.
EnergyGuide shows how a particular model compares with other similar models.
Be sure to compare water heater models with the same first-hour recovery rating when using the EnergyGuides.
Higher first-hour deliver, and higher recovery models will cost more to operate per year since they consume more fuel per minute of operation.
All figures are approximate*
Figure annual expense using local costs of energy.
Residential gas prices are usually calculated in units called therms. (A therm is equal to 100,000 Btu.) (100 cu feet gas = 100,000 Btu)
Locate per/therm cost on gas bill, or call gas company.
Use chart below to estimate yearly energy costs.
Cost to operate gas water heater
Larger image
All figures are approximate.
Use chart to compare gas water heaters at time of purchase
Call gas supplier to get therm value of your gas
If your gas bill shows 60 cents per therm, then look at water heater energy factor to estimate yearly cost.

For example:
Cost per therm of gas is 60 cents.
Difference between EF.51 and EF.63 is $33 per year
Life of appliance is 10 years = $330 over 10 years

Be careful to compare water heaters with same recovery and first hour delivery.
Higher recovery and first-hour water heaters consume more fuel and cost more per year to operate.
13.446 lbs CO2 per therm
All figures are approximate*
Figures are for NEW water heater set at 120 degrees
Figures are for optimal conditions: Burner is clean, combustion transfer surface is not covered with sediment, etc
Temperature setting affects cost: higher thermostat setting costs more
Incoming water temperature affects cost: colder water costs more to heat
All costs are energy:
Lower consumption and turn down thermostat to save money. Maintain water heater so water heater is not replaced frequently. Read more

Gas water heater efficiency with water softener Read
Efficiency is not same as energy savings/ all costs are energy.
1 gallon water = 8.34 lbs. /     It takes 1 BTU to raise 1 lb of water 1 F
so it takes  8.34 BTUs to raise 1 lb of water 1 F

Additional links
flammable vapors
Flammable vapor retardation

Compare gas valves

More hot water

Things to increase amount of hot water

MATH

Water heater math

Electricity from pole to breaker box

See basic 120V and 240V water heater circuits

Compare all water heater timers
Do it yourself
Do it yourself water heater

How to twist wire

How to wire off-peak water heater
Cutler Hammer C25BUB230A
Contactors
Recirculation system
Hot water circulation system
Solar water heater
9+ ways to save with water heater

Motorized shut off valve

Anode rods

Clean sediment from tank

Figure amps watts for water heater

How to pull meter and replace circuit breaker
Mother in-law
Stay happy
Avoid mother-in-law

How to wire Cooper 277
Troubleshoot Rheem Tankless

Troubleshoot Bosch Tankless

Troubleshoot gas water heater

Troubleshoot electric water heater

Remove water heater from attic

How to install gas water heater
Gas and electric water heaters Support the economy:
Buy water heaters  from my associate links:

50 gallon Gas water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon gas water heaters at Amazon
50 gallon Electric water heaters at Amazon
40 gallon electric water heaters at Amazon
Hybrid / heat pump/ water heaters at Amazon

Resources:
How to install gas water heater
How to install electric water heater
Troubleshoot gas water heater
Troubleshoot electric water heater
Point of use water heaters
Gas and electric water heaters Industrial electric at Amazon

Industrial supplies at Amazon

Industrial and scientific Amazon
Tools
Shop Amazon - DEWALT
Shop Amazon - Black and Decker
Shop Amazon - Stanley Tools
Shop Amazon - SKIL Tools
Shop Amazon - Porter-Cable Tools
Shop Amazon - Bosch Tools
Shop Amazon saws and saw blades
box timers Compare box timers

Control water heater w/ Z-wave
Intermatic control centers Control centers:
+ manuals and parts


All control centers and parts

Including Z-wave
programmable timer Compare programmable timers

Control water heater with programmable wall timer
Countdown timers Compare countdown timers

Control water heater with countdown timer
Low voltage power packs Low voltage transformers


E-mail: geno03245w@gmail.com
My response might end up in spam folder, check email folders
Site map
Follow newest idea on twitter
Privacy policy
Search