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Water heater temperature for killing bacteria/ 140 degrees F
water temperature for killing bacteria Bacteria that causes legionnaires disease can grow in a water heater at a temperature between 68 and 122F.  Inhaling the bacteria laden hot water steam in a shower is the worst thing you can do with it.  Bathing and hand washing dishes is less of a hazard.  Very hot water will kill this bacteria.   The length of time it takes depends on the temperature of the water in the water heater. 

* 70 to 80 C (158 to 176 F): Disinfection range
* At 66 C (151 F): Legionellae die within 2 minutes
* At 60 C (140 F): Legionellae die within 32 minutes
* At 55 C (131 F): Legionellae die within 5 to 6 hours
* Above 50 C (122 F): They can survive but do not multiply
* 35 to 46 C (95 to 115 F): Ideal growth range
* 20 to 50 C (68 to 122 F): Legionellae growth range
* Below 20 C (68 F): Legionellae can survive but are dormant
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What is this thing?
180-190 degree hot water
Genenerally used for commercial applications such as washing dishes.
Use for sanitizing or commercial process
Gas and electric models available
Single-phase and 3-phase models

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How to set temperature on ordinary gas and electric water heaters
water heater temperatue to kill bacteria 120 F temperature
120 F is considered optimal household tank temperature for saving money and giving ample amount of hot water, while posing least amount of scalding danger. But does not kill bacteria.
Takes 5 minutes to cause skin burn. This is especially important among children and elderly who are least able to recognize and escape dangerously hot water such as 140 F.

100F temperature
More recently, manufactures are setting 100 F water heater temperature on new water heaters. This action, plus lowering hot-water-usage-estimate for average family, allow manufacturers to claim energy-efficiency gains.

How to adjust water heater temperature
Family chart for setting timer based on incoming water temperature and thermostat setting
water heater temperatue to kill bacteria 140 F is considered temperature for killing bacteria on wash day.
140F will kill bacteria, and is required for some institutional and commercial applications such as washing dishes and bedsheets. Expensive commercial grade water heaters are also required by code to meet quantity and safety requirements in commercial applications, often requiring temperatures as high as 180.
Household water heaters can usually be set from 90 to 150 degrees.
Marathon residential electric water heater can be set as high as 170 read more.
However all water heater thermostats are calibrated approximately and calibration can change over time depending on many factors including pipe insulation, distance from tap, sediments and age of heater ... suggest use cooking thermostat at tap to verify temperature.
Bad single-handled faucet cartridge can add cold water at tap and reduce temp Read more

140F hot water is dangerous:
140F can cause serious burns in less than 5 seconds. See chart
water heater chemicals High temperatures distill chemicals out of water
Temperatures at or above 140F will distill chemicals out of water... and these chemicals can fill bottom of tank... so flush water heater once each 6 months using following instructions:

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Ways to increase amount of hot water
Tank pressure High temperatures increase pressure
Temperatures at or above 135 F can increase water pressure.  Any home can have high pressure for different reasons. Pressure over 80psi can damage tank and pipes and fixtures. Install pressure reducing valve, expansion tank, and pressure gauge.

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Change water heater temperature using timer Automated temperature change
If you have electric water heater, you can toggle between temperatures using timer or switch or home automation.
If you have gas water heater, there are programmable and remote control products that change gas water heater temperature between 120 and 140 F

How to change temperature  on electric water heater using timer
Mixing valve Mixing valve
Mixing valve lets you have different water temperatures in different parts of home.
Store hot water from solar tank or off-peak heating

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Advantages/ disadvantages/ How to save hot water using mixing valve
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