2016
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Sewer construction: Running sewer line into new neighborhood
digging down to sewer line Excavator digs down to locate end of sewer line
To connect new sewer line, end of current sewer line must be located.
Maps show location of sewer lines.
Here the excavator digs down to locate end of sewer line
Excavator clears about 4 feet of soil away so machine can reach low enough to reach down to sewer line.

As the trench deepens, steel trench boxes or shields are added to keep soil from caving in.
2 trench boxes are stacked as trench goes deep
Box must be 18" higher than anything that might roll or cave into trench
Soil must be added to each side of trench box to prevent cave-in from pushing box sideways over somebody inside trench.
Trench boxes protect men who climb down into trench

Notice that excavator has moved spoils far away from trench area for maximum safety.

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Connect sewer line to old sewer line End of sewer line is located
Men will go down into trench to make connection

1 cu foot of soil is 3'x3'x3' and can weigh a ton or more
Any depth over 5' requires protective system to prevent cave-in on workers

Total depth is about 24' below grade.
End of sewer pipe End of old pipe
Old sewer pipe is cut back so new connection is fresh, and not put over end of pipe that could be damaged.
6" sewer pipe New 6" sewer pipe is used
When pipes are assembled, a man positions new pipe for connection to previous section.
Excavator is then used to push sections together.
Sewer construction
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Sewer construction
Two excavators are at work
One excavator is digging new trench
Other excavator is filling trench as soon as pipe is laid
Dirt used to fill trench is same spoils that were removed earlier to make trench.
On left side of image is roller.
When dirt is dropped by excavator, the roller compacts dirt so soil is ready for home and road construction
The roller moves downward at angle approaching trench box.
This allows compaction starting deep inside hole


Ladder is down into trench
Men go down into trench to connect pipes

As soon as connections are made, the trench is filled in and trench boxes moved down as trench continues.
Men doing sewer construction
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Men doing sewer construction
Foreman is preparing to step across to trench box and examine work being done below.
Foreman makes sure everybody is working together and that work is correct.
Angle of ladder shows that climb down is risky

On left side of image is soil compactor
Excavator lowers equipment and pipe down into trench as needed
When pipe is positioned correctly, then excavator is used to push sections together.

Men must be skilled and trust each other

Pipes sticking out of ground will be used to connect each new home to sewer line.
Roller on dirt Roller compacts soil
As excavator moves dirt to fill trench, roller compacts soil.
Compaction is important to prevent problems for homes and roads.
Manhole cover
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Manhole cover
Acetylene torch in foreground
Open manhole
Larger image
Open manhole
The opening is tapered
Precast manhole risers are 4' diameter, while manhole cover is 3' diameter.

Ladder has 21 climbing rungs.
Ladder in nearly vertical, with top 2' away from center of manhole, and feet 1' away from other side of manhole.

Safety factor is that ladder cannot fall over, and man can touch wall to his back when climbing

Standard ladder has 12 inch space between rungs
Ladder estimated 21 feet tall
Depth of hole about 24' from top of manhole
Depth of sewer at this point estimated 22', after backfill, depth will be about 23 feet.
Inside manhole Inside manhole
Manhole base has openings for two 6" pipes
Effluent traveling from one pipe flows into other pipe

Weight of water being flushed down drains from each home will push effluent toward pumping station
Pumping station will push effluent toward sewage treatment plant while emptying sewer line, which draws more effluent down pipe.
Finished sewer line Finished sewer line

See more:
Sewer construction: main sewer line

  
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