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9000 watt water heater

California restaurant code requires 9000 watt electric water heater
Can be accomplished several ways
9000 watt water heater
Larger image

Both elements are 4500 watt @ 240volt, so why isn't this 9000 watt water heater?

Illustration shows tank label, which is located on side of tank
On right middle of label, reading top to bottom, label shows Phase 1, Volts AC, Upper element, Lower element, and Total connected watts.

Look at Total Connected Watts and it shows 4500 watt @240 volt
Label also shows 3375 watt @ 208 volt, since lower voltage will cause cooler element. Read more
So if you have 240Volts, then this water heater is rated 4500 watts since total connected watts is 4500 @ 240V

When upper and lower elements are each 4500 watt, and total connected is also 4500 watt, then it means that Both elements are NEVER are ON at same time. Upper element is ON while lower is OFF, or Lower element is ON while upper is OFF, or both elements are OFF Read how it works

Label shows this is ordinary residential, 6-year, non-simultaneous 4500 watt water heater.
Note also 'Phase' showing 1, which means single-phase electric power. If water heater was 3-phase, there would be 3 instead of 1. More about 3-phase commercial water heaters below.
Note: 40 gallon, and 6 year warranty
Note model number, serial number, product number to identify water heater warranty period to manufacturer, and to give you access to exact date of manufacture. Read: age of water heater/ pdf
Note ashrae standard: "ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines are established to assist industry and the public by offering uniform method of testing for rating purposes, by suggesting safe practices in designing and installing equipment by providing proper definitions of this equipment.
The creation of ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines is determined by the need for them, and conformance to them is completely voluntary."
Note: Water heater tested to withstand 400 degrees F... this is for new, non rusted water heater, and assures safe product  Is water heater safe   Water heater safety precautions
Restaurant-waterheater-sizing.pdf

Look at total connected watts to figure water heater wattage

This water heater is 4500 watt because 'Total connected watts' is 4500 @ 240Volt

Resource:
Figure volts amps watts of water heater

This water heater has two 5500 watt elements, and 'Total connected watt' is 5500 watt, so water heater is 5500 watt @ 240Volt

If your voltage is 208V, then water heater is 4125 watts
208V divided by 240V = .8666
.8666 squared; .8666 x .8666 = .75
5500 watt x .75 = 4131 watt

Many things affect actual watt output such as age of element, exact voltage, undervoltage, sediment and mineral build-up etc
9000 watt water heater label
Larger image

Example 9000 watt water heater label

Two 4500 watt elements @ 240 volt
Total connected watts 9000 @ 240 volt

This is simultaneous water heater
Simultaneous tank is wired differently than non-simultaneous tank

Convert non-simultaneous 4500 watt to simultaneous 9000 watt

How do you change 4500 watt water heater into 9000 watt water heater?

Answer: Rewire tank for simultaneous operation/ 5 steps below

Rewiring will void tank warranty

Whirlpool element wattage

Step 1: Check wattage of element: 

Wattage printed on end of each element/ 

This element is 4000 watt @ 208

Elements burn out and can be changed, but usually the tank label is not changed if person installs element with different wattage.

Check each element rating
If 240Volt is applied to this element, the wattage would increase to 5333 watts @ 240V
208Volt divided by 240Volt = .866
.866 squared: .86666 x .8666 = .75
4000 watt divided by .75 = 5333 watt
Read more

Resources:
How to replace element
How to test element
element wattage

Step 2: Install elements rated 4500 watt @ 240Volt

This element is good/ it is rated 4500 watt @ 240Volt

Elements burn out and can be changed, but usually the tank label is not changed if person installs element with different wattage.
Check each element rating


Resources:
How to replace element
How to test element

See larger

Step 3: Identify wiring on 2-element 4500 watt non-simultaneous water heater

Side note: Red and black wires are reversed on lower thermostat-and-element with some brands water heater See image showing both options
It makes no difference if red wire from L4 upper thermostat connects to lower themostat, while black wire from T4 connects to lower element.
Purpose of reversing wires is to prevent rare problem where cracked or partially-shorted lower element from causing runaway heating that would continually trip upper thermostat reset button until lower element was replaced.. Read more

In any event, all wiring is changed when converting to simultaneous 9000 watt water heater

Resource:
How to test element
Lower themostat for 9000 watt water heater

Step 4: Replace lower themostat with upper thermostat with red reset button

Ordinary upper thermostat must replace lower thermostat
Will snap into place of lower thermostat
Wire colors vary.
Typically the yellow and blue wires going to element are reversed when wiring water heter for simultaneous operation

Reset button is required for simultaneous tank.
Reset button will trip when sensing heat over 150 degrees.
Since lower part of tank is no longer connected to upper thermostat, then the upper thermostat cannotdirectly stop overheating on lower part of tank.
This is especially important safety feature... and larger tanks are more affected than smaller tanks since hot water rises, and would eventually trip reset on upper thermostat.

Code requires ECO thermal cut-off or reset button on lower thermostat when water heater is simultaneous.
Simultaneous 9000 watt water heater wiring
Larger image

Step 5: Rewire tank for 9000 watt simultaneous operation

If tank has foam-fill insulation, the rewiring job can require long drill bit.

How to rewire water heater if tank has foam insulation:
Drill through top of tank at edge, and drill down through foam until upper thermostat cavity is reached.
Then drill from electrical connection box on top of heater. Drill over to first drill hole.
Drop 2 new wires from connection box on top of heater going into upper thermosta cavity.
Connect new wires to existing tank wires that drop to lower thermostat-and-element

Wire colors vary
 style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 204);"Simultaneous 9000 watt water heater wiring
Larger image

Connect 9000 watt water heater to single-phase 120-240Volt service (residential wiring)

Add new 30 amp breaker and 10 gauge wire
Connect both ground wires

Makes sure all electrical connections are inside box with cover.
Respources:

Two water heaters
Color-codewire.html

Water-heater-temperature-for-killing-bacteria.html

Restaurant-waterheater-sizing.pdf

How-electric water heater works.html

How-to-replace-thermostat-on-electric-water-heater.html

How-to-wire-water-heater-thermostats.html
Intermatic WQ timer
Larger image

WHQ4 24-hour 9000watt water heater timer

WHQ7 7-day 9000watt water heater timer

FM1 wiring

WHW water heater timer wiring
How to wire GM 40 series timer
All wires must be same gauge. Only copper wire used.
Solid wire only. No stranded wire.
Only copper under screw plate, no insulation under screw plate.
Maximum 2 wires under screw plate.
Wires must be fully inserted under screw plate. And screw plate very tight against wires.
Wires cannot run over top of thermostat or elements, and must be pushed aside.
Wires can run over top of other wires, but not at point where wires are making connection to either element or thermostat.
A common mistake with electric water heaters is the ordering and installing of a water heater with an upper element of 4500 watts, a bottom element of 4500 watts, and a total connected (or maximum) wattage of 4500 watts. On such a water heater only one element is operating at any one time. Many individuals do not observe the total connected wattage and incorrectly assume that because each of the elements is 4500 watts their water heater has an input rating of 9000 watts.
Water heater manufacturers have specific procedures for rewiring an electric water heater so that the upper and lower elements are operating simultaneously. Some manufacturers only permit rewiring in the factory. Field modifications will normally void warranties and any listings that the unit comes with. Prior to acceptance of a field modified water heater, the local health agency should ensure that the modifications were performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations and with the approval of the local building officials. The data plate on a field modified water heater must be changed to reflect the total connected wattage rating with both elements operating simultaneously.

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