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Difference between Delta and Wye

Fig 1-1 WYE

Fig 1-2 Delta
Difference between Delta and Wye
Images above show the wiring configuration on secondary side of three transformers.

WYE (star) transformer coils are wired so the 3 coils (windings) of wire are jointed at one end, and there is 1 common point shared by each of the 3 coils of wire as shown in Figure 1-1. The common point gives rise to the Neutral wire. The other end of each coil gives rise to the 3 Hot wires.
Measuring voltage from the center point to end of any coil is called the phase voltage. This can be seen in Fig 1-1 as measure Hot to Neutral. With this illustration, the result is 120 volts.
The voltage measured between any 2 Hot wires is known as the line-to-line voltage or simply as the line voltage. This can be seen in Fig 1-1 as 208 volts.
In a wye connected system, the Hot wire to Hot wire line voltage is higher than the phase voltage by a factor of the square root of 3 (1.732). So 120 volts x 1.732 = 208 volts.
In a wye-connected system, phase amps (current) and line amp are the same.

Delta transformer coils are wired end to end as seen in Fig 2. Line voltage and phase voltage are the same with Delta. If you measure Hot wire to Hot wire, you get same voltage as measuring both ends of one coil. However the amps vary between line voltage and phase voltage. Unlike Wye where phase and line voltage stay the same, with Delta, the line amperage is higher than the phase amperage. If phase amperage measure across one coil is 10 amps. the line amperage measured acrosss two Hot wire is 10 amps x square root 3 or 1.732 = 17.32 amps.

Delta transformers are wired in parallel configuration because there is always more ways for amperage to flow. As the generator spins, each coil is energized at different times. At any given time, two of the three coils are energized. This adds extra current when measurring between the Hot wires.

Delta has lower amps/ meaning less heat.
For example many transformer banks are wired Delta on the Power company or Primary coils, and Wye on the customer or secondary coils. The reason for this: the primary side voltage can be 4500-7900 volts, and using delta configuration means lower amps which means the manufacturer can use smaller wires on the primary side coils and save money, yet still deliver full power to the customer.
Materials used for the power grid are a balance of cost, safety, and function.
Star-Delta (WYE-delta) is also a configuration used for motor starter timers, such as a star-delta timer. With motors, they consume a lot a of amperage to start so the motor is started with the star or wye configuration, and after the motor gets going, the circuit is switched to delta for higher efficiency.
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