Optimize solar panel array

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solar array
solar panels
 
Different string configurations result in different resistance.
To maximize solar harvest: Low solar and high solar conditions require different resistances

Rule:
During high solar conditions, low resistances harvests more electric output
During low solar, higher resistance harvests more electric output

Array configurations:

Example 1
1 string of 12 panels/ best for lowest solar
 Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
1) 12 panels in series.  1 string: 
   30.1 Vmp * 12 = 361.2 Vmp
   8.32 Imp * 1 = 8.32 Imp
   Zmp = 361.2 Vmp / 8.32 Imp = 43.4 Ohms

Example 2
2 strings of 6 panels/ good for low solar
Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
2) 6 panels in series. 2 strings:
    30.1 Vmp * 6 = 180.6 Vmp
    8.32 Imp * 2 = 16.64 Imp
    Zmp = 180.6 Vmp / 16.64 Imp = 10.8 Ohms

Example 3
3 strings of 4 panels/ good for medium solar
Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
3) 4 panels in series. 3 strings:
    30.1 Vmp * 4 = 120.4 Vmp
    8.32 Imp * 3 = 24.96 Imp
    Zmp = 120.4 Vmp / 24.96 Imp = 4.82 Ohms


Example 4
4 strings of 3 panels/ good for medium solar
Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
4) 3 panels in series. 4 strings:
    30.1 Vmp * 3 = 90.3 Vmp
    8.32 Imp * 4 = 33.28 Imp
    Zmp = 90.3 Vmp / 33.28 Imp = 2.71 Ohms


Example 5
6 strings of 2 panels/ good for high solar
Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
5) 2 panels in series. 6 strings:
    30.1 Vmp * 2 = 60.2 Vmp
    8.32 Imp * 6 = 49.92 Imp
    Zmp = 60.2 Vmp / 49.92 Imp = 1.21 Ohms


Example 6
12 strings of 1 panel is best for highest solar
Renogy 250 watt 30.1 Vmp, 8.32 Imp.  PV Array Wmp = 12 * 250 = 3000 watts.
6) 1 panel in series. 12 strings:
    30.1 Vmp * 1 = 30.1 Vmp
    8.32 Imp * 12 = 99.84 Imp
    Zmp = 30.1 Vmp / 99.84 Imp = 0.301 Ohms

Commercial solar collection arrays change configuration of strings throughout day, and throughout year, to maximize solar harvest...
For example early morning or late afternoon, or cloudy day, then 6 strings with 2 panels each might be better.
While midday, with clear sky and cold temperatures, 1 string with 12 panels might be better.
Colder temperatures are better because cold lowers resistance.
Resources
Solar pages index with all solar links
How to wire DC water heater using high voltage
How to wire DC water heater using low voltage

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